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"Who would believe that so small a space could contain the image of all the universe?" -Leonardo Da Vinci
Designed for 35mm film, and super hackable, the PINHE4D (P4) puts the pure power of the pinhole in the palm of your hand! A secret known to the ancients, and found in the eye of the chambered nautilus: a tiny aperture can render the visible world!
Photos taken by the P4:
I have created a 3D Printed Cameras group on Flickr
The mission is to share and promote open source cameras and related parts, created with CAD applications and 3D printing. Please join and post content!
I've designed and built a few pinhole cameras - it's immense fun, but it can be difficult to duplicate what others have done successfully. Cut-out paper pinhole cameras have been "2D" printed in magazines (see LINKS), but 3D printing offers a substantial improvement over flimsy paperboard construction. I hope you make, use, and hack this camera for your own artistic endeavors.
Goals for this project include:
Thanks to aubenc for the knurled surface library!
I look forward to seeing how you evolve and iterate the PINHE4D. I plan to add an Arduino-controlled servo to the shutter for accurate exposure timing and a lens board for using optical lenses.
Mostly prototyped in Tinkercad with some OpenSCAD spice: printed in black ABS on a Printrbot Plus at 0.25mm, 2 perimeters, 40% infill (tripod mounts at 70% infill) I found that two perimeters gave me consistent infill, ergo better strength, but 3 perimeters generated interior voids in some walls that might bend and crack. Cracks = light leaks = bad.
This work is licensed under the Creative Commons - Attribution - Non-Commercial license. This license applies only to the files and documents available for download from the Thing Files section of this Thing.
All other related content (photographs, videos, and verbiage such as contained in "Description" or "Instructions" ) are excluded from this license. with all rights reserved, unless specifically available for download This notice constitutes a clarification, not a change, to licensing for this design.
If you haven't explored pinhole photography, I hope this camera catalyzes your interest. Like learning a different language hones your native tongue, pinhole cameras make you a better photographer. A proper tutorial is beyond the scope of this forum, but look to the links at the bottom of this section, and watch for an Instructable soon. Assembly should be obvious from the pictures, and visit my Flickr link for more.
A word about materials: I tried, really, I tried, to make this in colored plastic, but anything but black ABS is too translucent and will ruin your film. Thicker walls could fix this, but the camera would be unnecessarily heavy and material-costly. Besides, black is a time-honored design choice in photographic equipment.
Bill of Materials
--- printed, BLACK ABS ---
--- non-printed ---
Additionally, you may want the following for finishing and assembling printed parts:
Before constructing a pinhole camera, a few decisions must be made: film size, frame format, pinhole size, and "focal length". The film (35mm) and frame size (24 x 36mm) decisions have been made here, but you'll still need a pinhole situated some distance from your film. Despite copious opinions on making the perfect pinhole, neither variable is really super-critical, but you'll do well to not stray too far from the recommendations.
A pinhole doesn't focus or refract light like a conventional glass lens element; everything in a pinhole photograph will appear focused. Any given pinhole diameter has an optimal distance from the film, a so-called "focal distance". Generally, larger pinholes and shorter focal distances make for faster exposures. Smaller pinholes give greater detail, and longer focal distances effectively magnify the image in the frame. There are three extension sizes for the PINHE4D, 22.5mm, 34mm, and 50mm, sized for 0.20, 0.25, and 0.30 mm pinholes respectively. You can easily geek out to your heart's content if you want (See links for more info). If you build the 22.5mm version, you will need shorter, 8mm bolts to fasten the pinhole/shutter
I used a very thin tapestry needle to make my pinhole, following the instructions in the article from withoutlenses.com. I estimate that my pinhole is approximately 0.25mm in diameter. From the pinhole diameter and the focal distance (34mm), my PINHE4D has an F-stop of 140 or f/140. The Pinhole Designer application will generate an exposure time chart based on your camera specifications and film choice.
A few technical notes about the PINHE4D:
Some photographic notes:
--- LINKS ---
An encyclopedic article with cross references:
A self-described comprehensive pinhole tutorial:
The basics from Kodak - a quick and dirty primer.
Make your own pinhole:
Pinhole Designer - an excellent pinhole design and exposure calulator. The reciprocity failure function is gold. Sadly, Windows only, but worth it.
Mr. Pinhole - More calculators and more links.
Worldwide Pinhole Photography Day:
A paper pinhole camera, 2D printed in a Czechoslovakian magazine, in the 1970's: http://www.pinhole.cz/en/pinholecameras/dirkon_01.html
Books, books, books; Knowledge is power:
A discussion of accurately indexing film in homebuild (120) cameras:
PINHE4D - a 35 mm Pinhole Camera by schlem is licensed under the Creative Commons - Attribution - Non-Commercial license.
So what's this mean?
We're sure schlem would love to see what you've printed - take a photo and share it on Thingiverse as a Make.
To post a Make simply visit this Thing again and click I Made One to start uploading your photo. You can also download the Thingiverse Mobile app (available via Google Play and Apple App Store) to take a photo and upload your Make right from the app!