Hey! This thing is still a Work in Progress. Files, instructions, and other stuff might change!

VULCAN 400 - Large Sized Cartesian 3d Printer

by makkusu, published

VULCAN 400 - Large Sized Cartesian 3d Printer by makkusu Apr 3, 2016



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The Vulcan 400, a modular 3D Printer designed for printing large objects. Objects as large as 400 x 400 x 210 approximately (Larger build size is possible). Z-axis assembly is modular allowing user to use a range of different build plate sizes. Any extruder system can be attached using a suitable mounting part which connects to the x-axis connector plate. This printer could be also used as a light duty cnc router. (More will be added also)

!! Actual Build Size: 430mm x 366mm x 210mm !!
!! Non Standard thin walled bearings used !!

Update (21/08/16)
If your looking for the bearings to fit this printer robotdigg.com has them for good price;

Full solidworks model download:



GT2 10m

GT2 20 Tooth 5mm Bore 3x

Bearing - (16mm Outer Dia - 5mm Inner Dia - 5mm Width) x6

Standard Nema 17 5x

Leadscrew + Nut
ACME TR8*1 + Standard copper flange nut (4 hole) 2x

Mechanical Endstops 3x

Extruder System
Any Extruder System can be attached using a suitable bracket

Nuts (Add 4x to Each to Insure there is enough)
Slotted block B-type slot 8 Threaded Plate M8 22x
T-nut heavy duty steel B-Type slot 6 M5 16x
M3 NUT 62x
M5 NUT 90x

Bolts (Add 2x to Each to Insure there is enough)
M3 Socket Button Head Length-10mm 20x
M3 Socket Button Head Length-15mm 8x
M3 Socket Button Head Length-20mm 16x
M3 Socket Button Head Length-25mm 8x

M5 Socket Button Head Length-10mm 20x
M5 Socket Button Head Length-20mm 4x
M5 Socket Button Head Length-25mm 17x
M5 Socket Button Head Length-30mm 4x
M5 Socket Button Head Length-50mm 24x
M5 Socket Button Head Length-45mm 8x

M8 Socket Button Head Length-20mm 22x

WASHER (Add 5x to Each to Insure there is enough)
M3 Washer 62x
M5 Washer 90x
M8 Washer 24x

3D Printed Parts
motor mount 2x
motor mount b v2 2x
shaft mount 2x
shaft mount b v2 2x
y carraige motor mount 1x
y carraige pulley mount 1x
y carraige linear bearing clamp 2x
belt clamp 4x
x carraige mount v2 4x
x carraige extruder mount 1x
x carraige nut spacer 3x
x endstop mount 1x
upper support linear shaft 2x
build plate mount 2x
linear bearing + trapezoidal nut mount 2x
trapezoidal mount 2x
lower support linear shaft 2x
estrusion bracket 4x
x carraige belt mount 1x
x carraige belt clamp 2x
Pulley 3x

Aluminium Extrusion
30 X 30 Slot 8 B type 660mm 4x
30 X 30 Slot 8 B type 600mm 8x
20 X 20 Slot 6 B type 500mm 2x
20 X 20 Slot 6 B type 530mm 2x

Linear Shaft
12mm Dia Shaft Length-600mm 2x
16mm Dia Shaft Length-600mm 2x
16mm Dia Shaft Length-400mm 2x

Linear Bearing
EP ISO Metric Closed Linear Ball Bearing Dia- 12mm 4x (PBC-Linear)
EP ISO Metric Closed Linear Ball Bearing Dia- 16mm 8x (PBC-Linear)

Profile Bracket
Bracket 30 B Type Slot 8 20x (With Fasteners)
Bracket 20x40 B Type Slot 5 4x (With Fasteners)

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what's the diameter of the steel pijps, i am dutch

Linear Shaft
12mm Dia Shaft Length-600mm 2x
16mm Dia Shaft Length-600mm 2x
16mm Dia Shaft Length-400mm 2x

thanks !!!!!!

Hey 5778 what do you mean by pijps?

Hi, what board do you use to run this thing?


I used a ramps 1.4, as long as its one stepper per stepper driver for the x and y axis, you can use any board you want. The z can be run on one stepper driver.

Makkusu, or anyone else,
Very nice design Makkusu
Would this work with only one side of the y axis having a belt and motor, or does that cause binding?


Hey n9jcv, it wouldn't work with just one motor on one side, like you said it would cause binding from a moment about the x axis.

Very nice build man. Once your project is finished i will make myself one, looks like a workhorse is there any prints . Do you have any issues with the Z axis? Like wobbling? I made a D-bot customized to 400*400 and i am having some issues with the z axis wobbling. I am working on a build plate and Z axis configuration based on your concept to mod my printer. http://www.thingiverse.com/thing:2042121

D-Bot XL Build Z Axis Mod
by Kldz

Thanks man! . A good few prints, its a big printer so its not so fast. D-bot is probably superior in that regard. Cant get any new photos since is been dissembled for a good while now. And salvaged for other projects for college. :P . Your z-axis looks pretty sweet. A large diameter linear shaft to compensate for any bad concentricity from the lead-screw. Having two bearing on the shaft would help. Increasing the distance between the two bearings would allow for a increase in moments that could be applied to the carriage which would help or LMK12LUU like you are using. Were are you sourcing the ballscrews?

do you mean the 3d files? GrabCAD. The parts ebay and aliexpress :)

Comments deleted.

are there any assembly instructions or a variance of one to follow?

College eats up all my time so no assembly instructions unfortunately

Where can I find the supports for the heated bed?

That is something i forgot to put up, they were cut from aluminium sheet. I can get .dxf file of them for you want since the design of them is not meant for 3D printing.

That would be Great! Because I have cnc mills. Can you send yo my Mail?
[email protected]
Thanks a lot!

Jan 3, 2017 - Modified Jan 3, 2017

I cannot find anywhere to purchase the Aluminum Extrusions, do you know anywhere I can go to order some from?
This is one I was able to find but was not sure if it is correct or not

Misumi is great, they have a lot of different types of extrusions, you can customize the length, and they are incredibly high quality!

I am assuming you are from the united states from your link so unfortunately i do not know of any suppliers for there. I do know of European suppliers like motedis and dold mechatronik from germany. As long as the extrusion can accept 8mm bolt and is 30mm x 30mm it should be fine.

buy aluminum square tube 20*40 instead of the profile

but it lists this...
30 X 30 Slot 8 B type 660mm 4x
30 X 30 Slot 8 B type 600mm 8x
20 X 20 Slot 6 B type 500mm 2x
20 X 20 Slot 6 B type 530mm 2x

Comments deleted.

Can someone Upload the Firmware? My Z-Axis has a wrong Value :(

What firmware are you using?


Nice job! Looking to build an upgrade to my current printer


can you tell me what for extruder and mount do you use?

I cant find a Mount for a Extruder that fit in this printer :(

The plate for mounting extruders is designed so that it would be easy to design a extruder that would be able to bolt on to it. I fabricated a bracket using aluminium sheet to attach a wades extruder. Some sort of 3d printed L bracket could be easily designed.

what firmware do you use?
can see the source in the link,

I also use Marlin, you can setup dual y steppers easily with marlin.

I use marlin Firmware for this printer

Jul 22, 2016 - Modified Jul 22, 2016

I also realize this machine with some changes, I do not use printed pieces but i used commercial metal parts.
I soon publish my work (in few weeks).
I hope the result will be good, this is my first building


It will be a better machine with metal parts for sure. Looking forward to seeing your machine up and running =D

At last sorted out the settings for this printer, tuned the acceleration and x/y speeds down and it now produced the same quality prints as my old Prusa I3. The frame is still moving quite a bit but I've ordered some cast corner brackets and this will hopefully cured the movement. Will also bolt it down on some sturdy piece of wood :-)
I've also gave up on the duel extruders for now...but it will be back soon !! For now I'm just satisfied that it worked out so well !
Cant wait for your next project Makkusu !!

Awesome stuff! That's the problem with such large printers, the mass of the gantries really begin to increase. The cast corner should be a big improvement over the 3D printed ones. Lol i never thought of bolting the thing to wood or a table =D.
What acceleration and speed settings are you using? I will be building a dual 3D printer myself soon, looking forward to that. The next project is nearly complete and to be open sourced to the web in the next few weeks.
All the best Francois =D


Is you rod-spacing on the x-carriage similar to the Prusia i3? I was interested in mounting my extruder on your machine.


I think this might be a perfect fit!


The Toranado Precision Geared 1.75mm Extruder - v2.1

Hey Toranado3D

The rod spacing distance is 70mm (centre to centre). No idea what this distance is for the Prusa i3.
Your extruder looks awesome!! I must give it a try.

Hope that helps

My printer is up and running ! I used a MKS board and 24 volt power supply, with two external stepper drivers for the Z and Y steppers and this was a bit of a headache to set up. I couldn't found the same linear bearings and used another type, and with a bit of sanding with a Dremel, they fitted quite nicely. I only gave it a dry run last night, but the travel speeds seems a bit high, it was shaking more than I imagined.
There is still a lot of tweaking to be done, but overall I'm quite impressed with the solid movement..Well done Makkusu !!

Thanks Francious, Very exciting for me to hear that someone built it =D. It definitely needs some large 3D printed brackets to brace the corners. This would solve the shaking and would be easy to design, unfortunately too busy to do it. But ye it does need a lot of tweaking, but hey isnt that what prototypes are for. For my build i used the second extruder driver with ramps 1.4 to drive the second stepper motor, it can be set in marlin. But i have never used a MKS board myself. Looking forward to hearing the progress of your build.

I scaled some corner brackets that was designed for 2020 extrusion, and it work well, but the travel speed and acceleration settings are to0 high. I really think it need some wieght ! :-) I used the MKS board for the fact that it can handle 24 volt and my heatbed is a 300 x 300 , 24volt heatbed. The stepper's torque are also more with the 24 volt. I used the external drivers from the normal Y and Z connection with the steppers connected in parallel.At this moment I'm trying to set up dual extruders, but like you said, the tweaking is half of the fun !

I was thinking about the scaling of brackets for 2020 extrusion also, its a good idea. Going to stick up a quick bracket design for people to use, to really make the frame rigid as possible. How is the 24 volt system working for you? I am designing a printer to use 24v system for the very reasons you mentioned. Are you using a silicon, kapton or pcb heatbed? Some pictures would be awesome. =D

still working mean not working yet or what?

Means it is still a prototype not a fully finished designed printer

thanks for your reply.... so if i build one it work?


ok i have my answare, no electronic parts in the bom, nothing about the fw... just another printer for expert user...

Ye its not intended for a beginner and never was meant to be :P

ok i understand but is a bad thing :P great project i will try to complet emy self just... i have troubles while trying to find documentation about that...

anyway great design

I understand that it is hard without documentation, not much i can do for now as it takes a lot of time to organise such things properly. But any questions i am happy to answer them.

Nice machine, what electronic are you using ?

Thanks Stef26, Using ramps 1.4 Shield, Arduino Mega, Drv8825 stepper driver, Nema 17 40+nm Stepper Motors, Custom Diy Dual MOSFET relay to drive heatbed, dual mk2b heatbeds, 2 power supplies one for the heatbed and one for control board. Those are the main electronics

Hey, it´s a nice printer.
It is possible, that you print me the parts?

Hey Nil91, unfortunately not, to busy at the moment. But there are 3D Printing services available around the globe that could do it for you or you could get yourself a cheap 3D printer to start of with and print the parts.


i´ve printed all parts, but i don´t find a bearing that fits for 16mm. All Bearings have a length of 36mm but the bearing-hole in the parts has a maximal length of 32mm.

Can you give a information where i can get the right bearings ? Or can you build the parts for bearings that are longer ?

hey Matzewob

i didn't design it with the use of traditional chinese lmuu bearings. I used pbc ISO metric bearings which are smaller in size.
This is a link to the manufacturer; http://www.pbclinear.com/KHP-ISO-Metric-Closed-Linear-Ball-Bearing
pbclinear have ebay site where they sell surplus which is how i got these bearings.
Another possible manufacturer: http://www.automotioncomponents.co.uk/en/catalog/linear/linear-ball-bushings/ceramic-linear-bearings/l1769#
be sure to check the dimensions though that they match the size of pbc bearings
Generally these type of bearings are called thin walled bearings so google for that.
Let me know how it goes. Happy to help

Hi thanks for the design, im about half way though at the moment but as far as i can see, the Z axis will max out at 210mm not the 400 you advertise in the description. Is that correct?

Whoops! that is a mistake on my part! I will change the description of build volume.

Thanks for the design, I've already printed all the parts and I'm about to start assembling. If I understand correctly, all I have to do to achieve Z axis height of 400 mm is to buy longer shafts, longer Acme screws and longer extrusions for the frame (those that work as printer "legs"), am I right? And if so, how much longer? Would 30 cm each be enough? I don't have Solidworks to check it by myself. Oh and one more thing, is 400x400 in X and Y axis correct? Or should I order those parts longer as well?

Thanks again and keep up the good work!

Firstly apologies for the mix up on the dimensions and late reply. To answer your question, yes this would work. Only problem would be that you would need more structural support at the corners of the frame, like bigger brackets to deal the flexing caused by the extra height. But designing bigger brackets is easy. Do you mean 30cm added to the current dimensions? If so this would be enough for a 400mm+ z height. Would achieve near a 500mm z height i believe. But i would need to check. What cad package do you use if you use any? The 400 x 400 in x and y are close. I have checked the solidworks model and approximately 430mm in x and 366mm in y. When i wrote in description i rounded to the nearest number. Probably caused a bit of confusion so i will fix that. This is a learning experience for myself as well. Any more questions? Happy to help

Comments deleted.

Hey, do you have mounts for a MK8 extruder ?

I have designed the mounting to have an array of mounting holes which will allow the builder to mount anything they want with their own designed bracket. But to answer your question, sorry i dont.

The SolidWorks files links are gone. is there any other way to get the SolidWorks files.

Deleted Dropbox file by accident, there is a new link in place of the old one.

Awesome looking project! How much do you estimate it to cost to build? I am between this and a D-Bot for my next project.

Hey cye604 as this is a incomplete build and a work in progress. For someone hoping to build a decent printer the D-Bot looks very good and i would recommend that for a project as it is fully completed. I have been bombarded with other projects to do so i want be able to finish this off anytime soon. All the best in your future projects.

Thanks for the reply! I can't wait to see this project all finished up, when you get time for it!

Thanks cye604! I have got a new printer in the works which i have been working on for a college, that's whats eating all the time up. ill opensource it once its finished.

would it be possible to make this be 600x600x600?

Assume you mean 600mm x 600mm x 600mm Build Area. Yes this would be possible. Although it would need to be more reinforced to deal with extra size and moving mass. Stronger Stepper motors would most likely be necessary as well.

Would you possibly be able to give me a parts list for making it 600mm x 600mm x 600mm? It would be much appreciated! Should just have to multiply the bars and everything by 1.5x im guessing.

that would be awesome for a list of parts for the 600mm x 600mm x 600mm

I agree! But I am guessing they missed this post...

Hey Guys apologies for late reply. Don't have time at the moment to modify printer, but if you guys want to modify it any way you want you can download the full solidwork's assembly of the printer with the link on the page.

ok. i believe if you multiply the frame pieces by 1.5 it should be able to handle the 600mm deck. only thing im worried about is the power needed as well as the other electronics

That would be something you could calculate if you find the mass of the moving gantrys.


F = ma Where: F = force (n) , m = mass(kg) a= acceleration(m/s^2)

P = Tω Where P = Power (watts), T = torque (Nm), ω = angular velocity (rads/s)

T = Fd Where F = force(n), d = perpendicular distance

If you figure out what the maximum acceleration you want you can then find the force on the gantry. When you have know force you could find the torque required if you know the radius of the drive pulley for example. There many more things you could calculate like the power required as well using P = Tω

Comments deleted.

I think this will be the printer I'm going to print. I would be supremely grateful if you could point me to your firmware settings, I'm not very learned on the software aspect of this. Any help would be much appreciated.

The firmware used is marlin. Since dual steppers are used for the y-axis. You will have to set this in the marlin arduino code.
The firmware settings such as acceleration, velocity, steps/mm etc. I will post these settings to the main page soon.
If there any particular settings you need to know, just let me know =D Happy to help

Thanks man. I'm putting the circuit board together this week. So I will load the marlin firmware on there, I would be super grateful if I can keep picking your brain about it FFR. I'm not very good with the arduino stuff...yet.

Apologies for late reply. I didn't see this comment until now. Pick away! What would you like to know?

You can send the project in SOLID WORKS?

Shall do. I'll stick it up on github over the weekend. I'll let you know when its up

Thank you!

May 21, 2016 - Modified May 21, 2016
dagn - in reply to makkusu

I downloaded your project!
Thank you!

I found an error in the conjugation.
LME16UU-2 Bearings matched with "Edge <1> @ BUILD PLATE MOUNT-2 at a distance of 1 mm, but now faces not. The same error and other bearings.
Just noticed that the sketch of the bearing significantly more- 36mm in length, seat - 34mm.
What am I correct?

No Problem!

The assembly is a very rushed piece of work. As a lot of changes were made. Ideally the cad assembly should be redone and errors fixed. Ah yes ill fix that. The parts were designed PBC linear iso metric bearings which are smaller in comparison to standard bearings. I hadn't updated the bearings to suit this. Shouldn't be hard to adjust the cad model for standard bearings.

I understood you!
for me is not difficult to change, I just wanted to figure out which way to go to correct the error.

Cool! Best of luck with it =D

Comments deleted.

Could you assemble it with the same corner brackets from your Vee Core design to assemble this one??

The corner brackets on the vee core are for 20mm x 20mm extrusion, they could possibly be scaled up to fit 30mm x 30mm extrusion with out much problems. That's one area which would be a major improvement is a new 3d printable bracket design. Something I'll look into.

Comments deleted.

Hey makkusu. Really like your design! Are there any assembling instructions, or just the pictures shown at the moment? Also, what are you using in terms of electronics/software? Ramps 1.4? Cheers.

Thanks Lucas! Unfortunately no instructions yet, just so little time free at the moment. What I'll do though for everyone is upload the solid works file to github so everyone can modify as they wish. Used a ramps 1.4 board with the extruder 2 driver board set to control the second y axis stepper motor. Mechanical z end stops. Stepper drivers used are drv8825. Marlin for the arduino mega board.

Uploading the Solidsworks assembly would be much appreciated! Shouldn't have any issues figuring out what goes where.
And great to hear re: electronics. Didn't see anything on your Wordpress page about it, so was just curious. Thanks!


Full zip of files, have fun modifying and improving it. Ye there is good few details missing on the build particularly on my blog. Got so many projects lined up. Will be easier for you guys to mess around with the source cad files then thingiverse stl's. One other electronics thing forgot to mention is the use of 2 standard mk2b pcb heatbeds that were adhered to the glass build plate using double sided thermal tape.

you may have to download it again?

Thank you

Best regards

Awesome, thank you! Took a look through the download and it's clear you put a lot of time into this project! Looking forward to hopefully giving it a good. Cheers.

Thanks! Wish i had the time finish it properly, but that's life =D ,Best of Luck

Thanks for uploading, I'm looking to find some GT2 belt and TR8 lead screw. Where can I find that for purchase.

Great design, I am going to use this as a base for my own design! I will upload soon.

Thanks dufelder :), I bought the GT2 belt and the TR8 leadscrew from aliexpress.com. Worked well and super cheap. Although i do recommend precision high quality leadscrews if the budget allows it like from misumi etc. Looking forward to seeing your design! :D

Can I scale this down? So that way it is 200 X 200 X 200?

Essentially you cant as some of the parts are not able to be scaled down. But i might design a new version over the summer that will be much smaller.

What I meant is can I just scale down the extrusions and the bed? thanks!

Ah okay! I know what you mean now. That wouldn't be a problem. If your thinking of building wait a bit, there are a few parts that need to be finalized and refined and a few extra parts to make it easier for you guys to build it. Just very busy at the moment.

Hey makkusu, thanks ill wait!
Also out of curiosity, what program did you use to design that 3d printer?


Hey T1GGE.
I used Solidworks to design it. Sometimes i use PTC Creo Parametric, But the two CAD packages are quite similar.
For rough design work i use Google Sketchup and a good old pen and paper. =D

quick question looking at ordering stuff to make this printer

Slotted block B-type slot 8 Threaded Plate M8 are these for the 3030 tubing becuase i see there are different nuts for all the different sizes of extruded aluminum

Apr 8, 2016 - Modified Apr 8, 2016
makkusu - in reply to Troyster84

Hey Troyster

I ordered the brackets and aluminium extrusion from a site called www.motedis.com. The brackets came with the required bolts and threaded plate nut. Bolts,Nuts and Washers were ordered from www.nutsboltsandthings.co.uk. Just to let you know there are a few areas with this printer that still need to be sorted out such as the z-axis endstop mount, Stronger structural brackets etc... Very much still a work in progress. College has me swamped with work, but ill let you know when i have got it fully sorted out. Forgot to put Work in Progress on page :P

The Bracket 30 B Type Slot 8 and Bracket 20x40 B Type Slot 5 can these be printed? Love the design just trying to keep costs down.

Apr 7, 2016 - Modified Apr 7, 2016
makkusu - in reply to Troyster84

They could technically be printed, but wouldn't have the strength of a metal bracket of the same size. I will add soon some 3D printable brackets that will be larger and an improvement to the existing ones. Any problems just let me know :) + still a few minor parts to be put in and bom updates, I'll have those uploaded soon

Apr 6, 2016 - Modified Apr 6, 2016

Can this be built with just 20x20 extrusion? (I have a lot of it)

A lot of the parts would have to be redone as they are not scalable and 20x20 extrusion wouldn't have enough strength for such a large printer. There are plenty of awesome printers that use 20x20 that you can find on thingiverse :)

Thanks for uploading this great design

Thanks Whizbang

This was what I was looking for all the time ! Exellent design ! I'm busy printing all the parts, but I see the linear bearings for this design is not the normal LM16UU or LM12UU bearings. Is it possible to include this type bearings as the others are real hard to find and quite expensive ! Otherwise...all the parts look real profesional ! :-)

May 24, 2016 - Modified May 24, 2016
makkusu - in reply to FrancoisOKelly

Hey Francois!
Thanks Man!
For this build i used: pbc linear - KHP ISO Metric Closed Linear Ball Bearing
Their quite i bit smaller then the standard LM16UU or LM12UU.
I bought them on pbclinear surplus ebay store: google PCB Linear on ebay, They might have some still available, but they have got all sorts of super high quality stuff for cheap.
I have got a link on the page for the Solidworks model of the printer if you want to modify or change anything like the size of the bearings mounts and add electronic boxes etc. Any questions just let me know =D

Best of Luck