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The T-Rex Skull

by Curriculum, published

The T-Rex Skull by Curriculum May 6, 2014

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Summary

The T-Rex Skull from MakerBot Academy comes complete with a lesson plan that explores characteristics of the most-studied dinosaur, Tyrannosaurus Rex.

With this 3D printable model, students will understand what can be learned from fossils and in doing so, acknowledge the difference between scientific facts and theories.


To download and print the entire T-Rex Skeleton, visit: digitalstore.makerbot.com

Instructions

The T. rex Skull
Understanding fossils: An introduction to paleontology

Grades
4-6

Class periods
3-5


Learning Objectives
Students will understand what can be learned from fossils and know the difference between facts and theories. They will also gain a general understanding of how fossils are formed.


Overview
No matter how lengthy its name, many children can name a dinosaur on sight. This lesson goes beyond naming dinosaurs and will give students a broader understanding of how we know about dinosaurs.

In the first part of the lesson, students will discuss what they know about lions. Then they will do the same for a Tyrannosaurus Rex. While the comparison is a stretch, it demonstrates what we know as fact and what we know as theory.

As students discuss the T. rex, they will learn that fossils tell a story about the animal. They describe facts (how tall, how wide, what kind of teeth) and ideas (what the T. rex might have eaten, how fast it may have moved due to its leg structure, or how it may have hunted).

The other part of the lesson covers how fossils are formed. The purpose is to identify conditions necessary for fossilization. Because students will go over this information in the first part of the lesson, this exercise allows them to construct their own storyboard imagining the circumstances for another animal to become fossilized.


Materials

  1. One computer with connection to the Internet; one MakerBot Replicator 2 Desktop 3D Printer.
  2. The T-Rex Skull 3D files.
  3. Paper, pencils, poster boards, markers.

Day 1: Introduction
List facts about the lion and other living animals. List things on the board, such as: size, speed, diet, teeth, mane, tail, etc.

Ask students, What would we know about this animal if it were extinct? Discuss that only the hard parts (bones and teeth) are preserved as fossils. Then ask students to choose those things listed on the board that indicate what we would know about the lion if all we had were fossilized bones and teeth. Circle appropriate things on the board that are listed, then make a list of guesses.

Ask students what do we know about fossilized animals. Pass around the MakerBot T. rex Skull and photos of the dinosaur, and invite the students to interpret it with both facts and guesses.

Have the class draw muscles and skin on the T. rex. Discuss how imagination comes into the interpretation of fossils.

You will have discussed fossilization with your students when doing the activity. Now, emphasize the discussions and the activity. On the board, make two columns. Title one, What we know about dinosaurs. The other should be titled, What we have to guess.


Then pose these questions:

  • How do we know what we know about dinosaurs? (review what was just discussed about lions and the T. rex: that bones can tell the size of the animal, its running ability, what kind of teeth it had).
  • What are things that we have to guess about? (While fossils may tell exactly what kind of teeth an animal has, we have to guess about what it might have eaten).
  • Mention colorings of the T. rex. Point out that we must guess dinosaur colors because fossils do not tell us what color they were.

The most famous dinosaur fossil of our time is Sue, the T. rex displayed at the Field Museum in Chicago, Illinois. While your students may already know about Sue, this will get your students excited about the lesson.


Invite your students to visit All About Sue (http://archive.fieldmuseum.org/sue/index.html#sues-significance).

Tell students to read through each of the tabs. They can record their answers to these questions on a piece of paper:

  • What do we know about Sue? (Statistics, skull size, number of bones, where it was discovered, etc) List responses on the board.
  • How do we know all of these things? (Students will likely answer bones or fossils)
  • What is the significance of finding Sue? (It is the most complete T. rex skeleton ever).
  • How do we know this? (Students should know that this is apparent through prior knowledge of other fossils and a comparison of Sue to other T. rex fossils

The following questions will help you gauge what students know about fossils in general before starting the lesson.

  • What is a fossil? (Many students will answer bones, which is fine, but ask them if things like dinosaur eggs, or even nests, are considered fossils. Trace fossils include eggs, nests, tracks, and impressions.
  • How do fossils form? (Though students may be very familiar with dinosaurs, they may not know the process that preserves the bones. If students cannot answer the question, that is fine. They will learn in this lesson.
  • What can fossils tell us? (Here, you can lead the students. Remind them of all the things we know about Sue).

Day 2: How do fossils form?
Now that students understand what can fossilize, ask them how it fossilizes. Students can visit How Fossils Form on Zoom Dinosaurs (http://www.zoomschool.com/subjects/dinosaurs/dinofossils/Fossilhow.html). Students will need to scroll down the page to get to the relevant text.

Discuss the main points of the process:

  • An animal must get buried fairly quickly.
  • Why must it be buried quickly? (If it does not it would get eaten by scavengers).
  • How might it be buried? (It could be buried by volcano or mudslide).
  • Water helps bury the animal in sediment (The burial process is crucial. It is also why many animals do NOT get fossilized. Discuss the probability of these circumstances being just right).
  • Soft parts decay.
  • Sediment presses down and sand hardens to rock forming a fossil.

Challenge students to draw their own diagrams demonstrating the process of fossilization with whatever animal they like. They should describe things mentioned above. Remind them that water could sweep over an animal and bury it in a flash flood or severe storm, and that entire skeletons rarely form because things get carried away.

After students finish their diagrams, tell them to pretend they are in the shoes of a paleontologist (a person who studies dinosaur fossils). Students can:

  • Pretend they work in a museum and they have just finished piecing together a nearly complete T. rex.
  • Describe the dinosaur and, based on the fossil find, tell a story about its life.
  • Use what we know about living animals to come up with ideas about the T. rex. Back their ideas by what they have found in the fossils.
    • Encourage them to be creative. Remind them to use phrases like, This T. rex may have or the fossil evidence suggests.

Day 3: Uncovering the Facts
This activity will be a guided discovery. Have students return to the T. rex page on Zoom Dinosaurs (http://www.zoomschool.com/subjects/dinosaurs/dinofossils/). Explain that they will be T. rex fact finders, but that they have to find details that support the facts.

Students will use their imagination to generate ideas based on these facts. This exercise can either be done as a group or individually, once students understand what they are looking for.

As a model, find the first few facts with students and discuss the support. Then further the discussion with ideas. For example, students will find the following in the Anatomy section of the introduction page.


  • FACT: T. rex had tiny arms, each with two fingers. Ask students how paleontologists know about T. rex arms.
  • SUPPORT: By studying the fossil bone structure of the T. rex, paleontologists can see what the different parts of the body looked like.
  • IDEA: T. rex may have used its short arms to hold prey while biting it. However, this would depend on whether T. rex is a hunter or scavenger. If he were a scavenger, the prey would not be struggling.

The following facts can be found on that same introduction page (http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/dinosaurs/dinos/trex/index.shtml):

  • FACT: T. rex had a slim, stiff, pointed tail.
  • SUPPORT: Fossil bones show the tail and its shape. The way bones are structured show that it was stiff.
  • IDEA: The tail may have been used for balance, allowing for quick turns while running. The tail can be compared to that of living animals tail to learn about balance, but this is not necessarily a fact. We cannot know for certain because there is no proof that T. rex ran.

As a class or individually, have the students continue going through the T. rex pages looking for facts and support. Many facts with support can be found within the following headings:

  • Introduction
  • Skeleton
  • What T. rex ate
  • Hunting, fighting
  • Intelligence, Care of Young
  • Running
  • Disease in T. rex
  • T. rex myths
  • Extinction

While not necessary to cover every fact, try to discuss a few from each heading. This activity allows students to gain an understanding of the type of information that can be concluded from fossils, as well as discover that not all facts are believed to be 100% accurate.


Questions to discuss:

  • What kind of information can scientists find out by studying animal fossils?
  • What can the skeletal structure tell? (How an animal moved, how bones fit together)
  • How can paleontologists group together certain dinosaurs?
  • What sort of current knowledge can help us learn about extinct fossils? (By looking at animals today, we can make comparisons).
  • What do your students think is needed for ideas to become facts?

Assessment

Students can use information from the lesson to construct a T. rex trading cards. This model can be designed by hand or on a computer. On the front, a picture of the T. rex. On the back, specific facts about the T. rex. Cards should also include explanations for why the facts are believed to be true. Students can then trade these cards, explaining to their peers what facts they deemed important and why.

While resources do not have to be limited to the Internet, some good sites include:

http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/dinosaurs/dinos/Trex.shtml
https://www.childrensmuseum.org/educators/classroom-resources
http://www.discovery.com/video-topics/other/dinosaur-videos


Source
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/


To download and print the entire T-Rex Skeleton, visit: https://digitalstore.makerbot.com/t-rex-skeleton

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Is this the same head as the full version or do I need to reprint the head if I purchase the full t-rex

Did any body do the whole model? Do you purchase STL files or is it something else?

Doh!!!! Only 10 minutes left on a 5 hour print of the skull and it broke off my plate. I've slowed the speeds way down and it's going to take 15 hours to print. I hope it works this time.

No luck. It actually broke off even earlier this time.

Make sure the nozzle is close enough to the bed where sliding a piece of paper under it on the 4 corners catches the paper just enough without tearing it. Do it about an inch in from the corners, not exactly in the corners. You need it close enough to squish the filament onto the bed to make good adhesion. Try turning your first layer temp up about 10-15 more degrees so it really sticks.

I have prints that stick so well that I don't think I'll ever get them off at times. I print onto blue tape wiped with alcohol.
Good luck!!

I have to use a knife or screw driver to remove my prints. I'm using 3D Eez. I changed the infill from 80% to 40% and it succeeded. Only took about 4-5 tries. :)

Mar 14, 2016 - Modified Mar 14, 2016

To download and print the entire T-Rex Skeleton, visit: digitalstore.makerbot.com

No Credidcard no chance :(. Please add fast Paypal...

This was my first print after the print test part on my Da Vinci Pro and it turned out great. The lower jaw came loose the first time I ran it but with a little more stick glue the second try was perfect.

Do you have any pictures or videos of this print?

Mar 8, 2016 - Modified Mar 8, 2016

Ive been having issues with the bottom jaw still lol what were your settings at?

I printed it in abs because that's all I had I was set 210 on the extruder and 90 on the bed. I used blue painters tape on the bed and a lot of glue stick on that. I also slowed the printer down to a crawl as time did not matter to me and the second time worked great. First time was with the settings that the slicer threw in there. Also did not use glue the first time. Hope this helps you.

could you guys redesign the base of this print? it's overly sized and uses way to much material for what it does, it could be designed a lot better and not waste so much filament. maybe some sort of T shape, with 2 short legs and 1 long leg, and the name plate could be put on the long leg.

This was our first large print on the ideaPrinter F100L using eSun's 3mm Orange PLA Filament. Came out to be 1.5ft long with amazing detail and quality. Check out our timelapse video here:


Eezitec.com
Online Store & Educational Platform for 3D Printing

side question: how did you get your time lapse to be so smooth?

Have your camera take more pictures so you can render out with a higher FPS

Higher FPS sounds too easy. I've been using a GoPro and just letting the GoPro Studio render the movie. I'll take a look at increasing the FPS. Thanks!

Thanks! I shot it on the Panasonic GH4 and stitched all the pictures together in Adobe Premiere CC. I made each image 2 frames long so it gives it a smoother motion.

I would love to tinker the base to make the name plate separate... print the base in wood pla with the plate in brass pla

This is a very nice model indeed. Add me to the list of those who would buy the full model in a heartbeat if it included STL files.

Very good model and print perfectly even without support!
https://youtu.be/darHmFUeYZc

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I printed this on my Up! Mini 3D Printer in a lime green colour. I printed with an infill termed 'Big Hole,' and added support at 45 degrees. I probably could have used less although I didn't want to take the risk. I recommend finishing the jaw and skull teeth sections with a rotary tool such as a Dremel, just to remove any flaws. Overall, it turned out great but was quite a drain on plastic - using 61 grams for just the skull component alone. This being said, great job Makerbot!

I printed the T-Rex over this past weekend for my grandson using glow in the dark filament for the skull and everything printed perfect! Thank You for the file. you did a great job.

On things such as this, can you arrange the objects around the platform to all get made in one print or does one have to print them one at a time in separate jobs?

Depends on the size of your printer, you should always be able to print them all at once if you like. Though you take a risk in doing so as the printer sees them all as one print, so if something happen to one piece that caused you to stop, they are all ruined. I believe its considered best practice to print one at a time to avoid such an issue, though that's up to you and how reliable your printer is.

Just finished top and bottom half. No major issues, Printed on makerbot 5th gen. Default "fine" settings.

I tried printing the skull twice with no support, as was suggested, and the print was knocked off both times at about 25% completion. Just finishing one with raft and support and its working well.

Printed on my fabtotum, pla black, 210 degrees c, .10mm layer height

I am trying to print this on a makerbot replicator - V 5 brand new with newest software. I am having all sorts of issues with the material hardening before it gets to the object - specifically for the teeth. How did those of you successful with this model orient it? I tried on the top of the head - no luck, teeth down - no luck. how did you guys successfully orient and print it?

I used the stl orientation, no supports 40mm/s , 33% infill and the above settings, i used kisslicer and it came out great

What fill would you recommend I use in order to ensure a great looking print?

Jul 24, 2015 - Modified Jul 24, 2015
geert01 - in reply to PrintrBeam

33% but I think you can go much lower

What color filament do you use to have it the color in the main picture? Is that warm gray?

Nope, pla black

I love the lesson plan almost as much as the model! Fantastic for science lovers.

Mar 23, 2015 - Modified Mar 23, 2015

This has been one of the largest prints I've ever done, but one of the most beautiful. I'd love to do the entire skeleton but I, unfortunately, don't have a Makerbot :( Thanks for posting though!

Did you use supports to print this as well as what thickness and fill did you print the skull at?

No supports are needed for either of the prints...I used 40% infill and .2 layer height on my Printrbot metal with PLA. It took about 5 to 6 hours, but came out beautifully.

So do I print it in the orientation it pops into dura on?

The skull may print upright without supports perfectly...so, yes

Working on the skull now, the jaw looks amazing. finished it at about 2:00AM it is beautiful.

Great!

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are the makerbot people going to make the whole skeleton able to print with other printers i bought it to only realize i cant print without there printer does anyone know why not just sell the 3d model

I'm finding it very difficult to print the jaw. After many failures, I realize that the extending tip on the base is curling up, and the nozzle is knocking one of the jaw halves off the base each time it reaches a certain height. I'm continuing to try various heats, fan, infills, etc to minimize/avoid the curl.

Anyone else seeing this? Anyone else have a fix? On a Flashforge Dreamer, using the right extruder (which may not get as much cooling as the left).

iCloud - in reply to rrhb

im using a ctc very similair doing the jaw its at 93% print it with support at 50 degree angle tollerance, print on blue tape with colorfabb pla at 0.2 55c bed at 190c use ALOT of glue stick and make sure that you level the bed properly and print at around 40 mm's and slow down the first layer if you have updated to sailfish which i highly recommend

same here. the jaw keep on failing... I tried to orient it vertically but it still fail... I may need to up the temperature to 200+...

Nice model! To buy more art like this, visit:
http://3dprintedart.weebly.com/index.html

Can't get the Skull to print... I got the jaw, rod, and base to print but the skulls first 2 or three layers never touch (excluding the raft). I have a Duplicator 4s and and printing through Replicator G, note that the distance from the layers are about 1-2 cm off? I need help please, and fast... I have a client on the line for this, thank you.

Its your slicer settings try adjust the model Z height or just buy a copy of Simplify3D

My Creator Pro printed this with amazing results. Even the teeth where perfect.

Great test piece for new printers after you've got everything tuned. . . . .Details are outstanding. Thank you for sharing!

Printed on a Makerbot Replicator 5th gen, standard settings. Everything looks great except the teeth on the lower jaw came out a little patchy. Anyone have any suggestions for fixing this problem?

What printer are you using? Im planning on buying one soon but I just can't decide!

If you are mechanical minded and have a tight budget, go with the prusa i3 of Replico. Not mechanichly minded, but still on a budget, printerbot simple metal plus. No budget? Ultimaker 2

What happened to the full size one in the digital store?

Had to print large parts at center of heated bed for best results. Printing the entire job to the edges of the heated print bed caused cooling and warping. Mine was with support material and it cleaned up very well. Rod fits tight, but fits. Good print, my kids are amazed!

takes a long time to print this

This is very cool printing right now on replicator mini love it

Very nice. Not sure why, but there is no zip file generated so you have to download each individual part.

I was wondering about this too. Why is there no zip? I've never seen that before.

I made this with the Ultimaker 2
I printed at high resolution slow speed and I am super impressed at the quality of this printer and the quality of this print

Printing at 200% scale right now. The bottom jaw is turning out FANTASTIC.

Anybody else noticed the rod is way too small to fit snugly into the base and model? I will figure out the right scaling factor to use but I was surprised nobody said anything about the rod being too small yet.

About to print that part, what did you end up doing?

I think I measured the hole in the base and then upped the scale of the part in MakerWare until the X size was correct. Just make sure you are taking the dimension that doesn't have the Key portion of the rod sticking out when you look at the size. One dimension will be larger than the other by 2-3mm. Look at the smaller dimension.

Oh yeah, stand the rod up straight for sure, don't print laying down.

I printed the rod as is lying down and had no problems with the printing or the fit....FYI.

I guess the deformity that is created by printing it on its side is enough to make up the difference in tightness. When printed up and down (and no deformities are created to the round surface) the rod is much smaller than it should be.

Hello, this file is not available anymore now. I would still like to have it backed up because I want to make something cool for my son with it. Could someone that has it backed up please send me this file? It would be most appreciated. Thank you :) ([email protected])

This comment has been deleted.

When will the results for the contest be announced?

For a 'flash challenge' the model is rather large. It took me all week to just to print my entry. I'll bet it is taking them a long time to verify all the contenders. Hopefully we'll hear something by Memorial Day weekend.

Wondering that too......tomorrow is 10 days already.

Finally finished the T-Rex Skull and platform, had to print the post as an individual item, best guess is, if you print something else on the same print bed with it, then it heats and cools to much, causing it to warp and either pull all the way or on one end or the other, not sure how to post a pic here just yet

Just finished the lower jaw, took too attempts, first attempt was with the pole and the lower jaw on the bed, the pole came off the bed then one side of the lower jaw, scrapped the project and put just the lower jaw on the bed, used aqua net super strong hold hair spray on the bed tape, jaw printed flawless at .6 scale, 200% temp, 0.2 layer height, 100% speed on all prints, had I used enough hair spray on the first attempt I believe it would have worked as well, at any rate, no raft, no support material was used during the skull or jaw print.

Printed the skull so far, no problems,3H:14Min time to print, had to scale it down .6 to fit the printrbot simple table, no raft, no support mat, default position, .2 layer hight, PLA material, 200%C temp, .14 infill, teeth and all came out perfect, starting the print of the Jaw and the rod on the same table, just rotated the rod 90% and scaled them both .6 to match the scale of the scull, will report back after they have finished.

I printed the jaw no problem, I printed the rod that holds the scull up no problem, But I can't get the stand to print keeps coming off the build plate, And I can get the skull to print, won't print as downloaded and tried to rotate it etc. no luck. what's up??? Thanks Ron

Printed this thing in PLA at .06mm layer height at 80% infill on a Rostock Max. The lower jaw took 19hrs and the top skull took over 42hrs. Bloody amazing. It doesn't look like it's 3D printed it's so damn smooth.

Holy crap you must run your machine slow. I printed out of PLA at full scale. Lower jaw 2.5 hours. Upper skull 4.5 hours. I used 30% infill.

Curious why so much infill?

I just wanted something really solid. I know it was WAY overboard, but it ended up super cool. I love how heavy it feels.
Doing another smaller one right now with 20% infill. I see someone else on here did it with just perimeters and it turned out ok.

How much material did you use at that level?

What's the color of the filament used in the examples?

I scaled to 150% with ABS. No rafts and no support with a .28 layer height. It came out great except for the teeth on the lower jaw were a bit ragged. A .20 layer height would have solved the problem but then it would take hours and hours to print. Thank you Makerbot for sharing this fantastic model. I'd gladly pay $14.99 for an STL file of the whole skeleton, but alas it's only available in a proprietary Makerbot file format.

Hey MarkBenson, you could send me that file. I can convert it to stl for you.
Kind regards,
Karl

I would like to enter this contest, however the skull file will not load into OpenSCAD due to inaccuracies in the mesh. This is true for most models, including the ones from MakerBot themselves. Why are the models in such a state of disrepair?
Les

im having the same issues

Printed the skull yesterday - this thing is awesome! Just found the full skeleton! Gutted that it isn't available as stl... would happily pay $15 for the full model if I could actually print it on my RepRap.

Almost bought the model of the whole thing... only to discover that they give you the x3g files (some sort of gcode) only... that's STUPID!! So double Mark Benson.

Hey MarkBenson, you could send me that file. I believe I can convert it to stl for you.
Kind regards,
Karl

I don't have the files. They are available to purchase from http://digitalstore.makerbot.com/http://digitalstore.makerbot.c... but they are in some sort of pre-sliced format for Makerbot printers. I guess it would be possible to recreate a mesh model from the gcode... sounds like a lot of work.

This is soo awesome! Thanks for sharing Makerbot Academy!!!

Same for me would buy from MakerBot but need STL file. Not gonna be locked into their proprietary file types to print. Y'all are missing out on a lost of cash. hmm sony memory stick, minidisc...etc Love the cool stuff just wanna be able to print on any of my 3d printers. Bet this would look awesome on our company's Objet 500 Connex.

With support, I guess?

Optimized for print without supports!

Thanks again!

How many PLA quantity does it require?

I printed these, with rafts, but no support. Settings were 10% infill, 2 shells, .20mm layer height (on a Relicator 2).
Weights:
Jaw: 36.74g w/ raft - 34.33 w/o raft
Rod: 5.12g w/ raft - 3.67 w/o raft
Base: 70.46g w/raft - 54.11 w/o raft
Skull: 75.61g w/raft - 73.87 w/o raft
These were all printed in the "default" orientations that the files came in. The weights are all pretty close to the predicted weights from the Makerware Desktop software.

I would like to see final model weight in tandem with printer settings on models also. ...Gives a good idea on your spool use, and the potential scaling opportunities.

depends on your settings like infill,resolution, wall thickness,nozzle size and thousands more.

Haven't been able to print this yet, but the system you've created to attach the jaw to the skull looks to be very nice.

Bet yours is better? Hope so I am a KS supporter ;)

Hah! Thanks Flaboy! ...Our hinges are meant to allow open and closing of the jaws, but we're still building and testing. :) ...I liked the connection MakerBot used on this skull because it seems to be nice and clean. Ours can get tough because of the function.

Awesome! Is the store download comprised of STL files? I couldn't find that information anywhere.

I bought the full skeleton thinking I could get .STL files. WRONG!. I asked for a refund (it was NOT clear on the website that I couldn't get STL files). Really stupid they won't make STL files available for paying customers!

Double that... I'm really annoyed...

The same here was hoping to build it bigger in something larger than a makerbot and in ABS or VeroWhite. Not everyone has a makerbot some here have BETTER machines.I will find out a way to print it Scan it and share the STL files..

While the files for the T-Rex Skeleton on Digital Store are .X3G, Thingiverse content will always be STL or OBJ.

Make the files available in STL format in the Digital Store and I'll buy it. Otherwise you've lost a sale from me.

Thanks! I don't have a makerbot, so I guess I don't get one. :(

joefe - in reply to edmo

add me to the list of people who would buy the full model if it was available in STL format. :(

joefe - in reply to joefe

But I do have to say thank you for sharing this great t-rex skull model!

ukcat - in reply to joefe

Fellas, you do see the STL files on here to download, yes?

We're talking about the full skeleton; not just the skull.

Okey dokey....

Another marvelous project, thanks! Already planning to print and donate this one to my old elementary school too!

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