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Filament extruder

by Bender24601, published

Filament extruder by Bender24601 May 3, 2013

Description

_____________________________________________________
UPDATE,

I have got the OK to upload the drawings and other files needed to make this Extruder to the Universities' website. Not sure if in future I may upload the files to Thingiverse, but for now you can see most of the files here:

pe.mw.tum.de/fileadmin/w00bft/www/zip/Konstruktionszeichnungen_Extruder.7z

The list of files there isn't yet complete but I am working towards that. If I find time I may add a BOM and instructions as well, but for now I am very busy writing my thesis.

Newest tests are very promising in regards to consistent Diameter. Currently its 2.9mm so the Die diameter may be increased a tiny bit. Very little diameter variations can be measured at the moment. Any current variations are due to manipulation of the not yet solid filament.

Biggest drawback at the moment is the extrusion speed, which is still rather slow, but could easily be increased with a bigger motor. At the moment the motor spins at 35RPM and is extruding ABOUT 4cm per minute.

Feel free to ask questions in the comment section, if I have time I will try to answer these as soon as possible.

Update: Added a BOM in the downloads

Recent Comments

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can u please make the instructions into a pdf because i am unable to view them.

dear I'm looking extruder filament, from PCL, diameter 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, 0.3, 0.35mm performance of small
Thanks

Hello.
What kind of steel is used for parts? Or Simple steel?

Thanks and kind regards.

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Comments

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Dgray001 on Apr 5, 2014 said:

can u please make the instructions into a pdf because i am unable to view them.

Sharof on Mar 20, 2014 said:

dear I'm looking extruder filament, from PCL, diameter 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, 0.3, 0.35mm performance of small
Thanks

javibaker on Mar 8, 2014 said:

Hello.
What kind of steel is used for parts? Or Simple steel?

Thanks and kind regards.

pclauinger on Feb 14, 2014 said:

What are your recommendations for modifying this assembly to extrude a narrow sheet (~1.5" wide, 1mm thick), instead of a filament. Looking for recommendation on the die design

Dolcey on Jan 31, 2014 said:

Thanks in advance for your great contribution Bender24601.

I have reviewed all the material that you have uploaded, graphics and drawings, but I have problems with the connections of temperature regulating system and configuration, and what values ??should be saved, I also see that there is a control board engine, which also displays his connection, and finally, I'd appreciate more detail the components to buy or will update the links related to these components directly to the product in the bill of materials, as it would be suitable to find equivalents in other countries.

On the other hand, I have read that the speed could be improved by changing the Extrusion engine, which could recommend?

Thank you very much.

Sorry for the translation.

JuliusG on Jan 31, 2014 said:

Hello Dolcey, Sorry If I step in right here but I may have some answers for you. I built an Extruder based on this one (just a little bigger). At first I used a stepper motor with about 1,3 Nm (Size Nema 34 company Portescap) of torque which wasn't sufficent (may have something to to with me using an extrusion screw and not an auger). So I added a gearbox with a translation of 20:1. The Maximum Speed of such Motor usually is about 200 Upm so with a Gearbox you get 10 Upm max.
I did a little math an calculated that this equals more than enough melted polymer for a theoretical extrusion rate (498 cm/min for a 1,75 mm Filament). I know this obviously won't happen but I'd be satisfied even with a tenth of that ;).

I sould mention, that my extruder still is partially under construction cause I hade to wait a long time for the gearbox. But I will assemble it this weekend.

For the temperature regulation I use a PID thermostat (from Eurotherm) (two actually for I use two heating zones) and heating bands with 240 Watts each (Company Niggeloh). Each thermostat is connected to a solid state relay which turns the line voltage for the heating bands on and of. These heating bands have a built in Thermocouple Type K also connect to the thermostat.

If you need certain values for your thermostat please tell me which one exactly. Also I trie to upload some pictures.
I hope I could help

Kind Regards

Julius

elsoy on Jan 20, 2014 said:

Which Nema Stepper you used? Can you send me a Link?

Bender24601 on Jan 20, 2014 said:

Hi, check the comments, there is a discussion about the Stepper Motor. I used this one: http://www.phidgets.com/produc... but it is discontinued. There are some other suggestions in the comments.

rx7mike88 on Jan 8, 2014 said:

Bender,

The link you posted for the STL files and drawing files have an error.

Bender24601 on Jan 10, 2014 said:

Hi, thanks for the heads up, I will ask my University what happened and may fix the link

Snowskier4now on Jan 2, 2014 said:

Bender

Do you have any idea of the newly recommended stepper motor with the 10:1 gearbox what the maximum RPM that it would operate at?

Snowskier4now on Dec 27, 2013 said:

Bender,

How would you propose to get the PEEK material into the desired shape on the drawing? Would this be to get a much thicker sheet of PEEK and cut that into a circle and then mount the circle onto a lath and have it cut into shape there or would this be better performed with a CNC machine?

Bender24601 on Dec 27, 2013 said:

Hi,

I ordered a piece slightly bigger than I needed (since it was square) and then mounted it on the lathe and shaped as desired. CNC would of course also work.

rx7mike88 on Dec 26, 2013 said:

Hello,

What material is the Extrusion Die, Extruder Barrel, Ring, Feed Section, and Auger Sleeve made of? Is it some kind of Aluminum?

Thank you,
Michael

Bender24601 on Dec 27, 2013 said:

As snowskier said, they are steel, except for the ring, which is made of PEEK to act as insulation between the two parts

Snowskier4now on Dec 27, 2013 said:

I believe that the drawings show for all of the five (5) pieces as follows: Material Stahl which would translate into steel.

jog on Aug 3, 2013 said:

Hallo Blender24601, you mentioned that "the emypty space between the auger and the nozzle is as small as possible." Why that?

I do not have any experience in this process, but I reflected a little bit about it and me "kamen da einige Gedanken":

1. The space is not empty - it is filled with molten plastic. Right?

2. The auger tip INTO the moten plastic will push AND MIX this molten plastic. This mixing action should demand A LOT OF torque.

3. The auger will drain heat. It will take some time to reach in its thermal equilibrium.

4. Plastics inside the tube still at some distance from the nozzle will start to melt at the heated auger surface

5. After shutting down and cooling the apparatus, molten plastics at the auger surface will clue at it. When heating up, it can take a long time until the heat reaches there to melt the clued plastics again. Up to there, the clued plastics will rotate together with the auger and can hinder the forward tranport of unmelted plastics - more torque needed!

So my question: would it not be better to pull the auger tip to outside the molten zone?

Greetings

jog

Bender24601 on Aug 4, 2013 said:

Hi jog,

ill answer your questions one at a time:

1. Yes, the space is filled with molten plastic

2. The auger tip will always be submerged in molten plastic, no matter how big the space between the tip of the auger to the nozzle is. This does indeed MIX the plastic, which is something that is desired to avoid bubbles in the extruded material.

3. This will always be the case.

4. It is desireble for the plastic to melt quite a bit before being extruded. This allows more mixing of the plastic, resulting in fewer lumps and air bubbles.

5. After shutting down the extruder the plastic will indeed solidify and stick to the auger. When restarting the extruder you have to make sure to give it enough time to heat up and melt all the plastic still in the barrel. This may take a little time, but would not be different if the tip of the extruder was not in the molten plastic since you should not turn the auger on untill all of the plastic is melted again.

So to answer your question: I do not believe thatit would be better to pull the auger tip outside the molten zone. This is because it is beneficial to mix and knead the molten plastic before it reaches the nozzle. I also do not think that there would be enough pressure to extrude the plastic if the auger is not conveying molten plastic but rather the solid pellets. The pressure just before the nozzle should be as high as possible to ensure a consistent and high quality filament.

Regards,

Bender

Tesseract on Aug 3, 2013 said:

I was under the impression that it should be close as well and I simply wanted verification. My thinking is this and maybe Bender can verify your points are true and some actual help the thorough mixing of the molten material.

The primary reason I see to have it close is so that the auger itself will push the molten material directly into the recessed opening made for the nozzle instead of simply increasing pressure in all directions inside the open area.

Another aspect, a large plug un melted plastic will exist and may not heat evenly enough to melt smoothly or completely enough when extruding operations begin and could end up pushing the solid material into the nozzle. The auger moved all the way down will prevent the possibility of this floating solid piece of material from ever existing by its simple existence in the empty area. This would seem to be beneficial to the entire process.

Although the auger would allow transfer of heat away from the nozzle and into the the area where the pellets are added I found when I did some extreme testing the temp of the auger was greatly reduced by its passing the through the heat blocking plastic pieces and that it never got anywhere near hot enough to start melting pellets prematurely.

The last area I think it helps is when you want to change filament colors or types have a large empty area that is free flowing there is no process in place to move new material in and out of that chamber and the time required to get 100% purity of the new material is greatly lengthened as the material can mix freely. It will take a long time for all of the old material to be removed and replaced by the material. imaging going from black to white how long with an large open area would you end up getting grayish material. The auger would expedite this.

Tesseract on Jul 21, 2013 said:

Hello Blender24601, In you design how close does the end of the auger come to the nozzle itself. If it does not go completely up to the nozzle where does it stop? I am not sure if my auger is long enough.

Bender24601 on Jul 21, 2013 said:

The end of the auger should be as close as possible to the nozzle so that the emypty space between the auger and the nozzle is as small as possible. What auger did you get?

imageit on Jul 20, 2013 said:

Hi Blender24601,

I was wondering how the Extrusion Die is fixed to the Extrusion Barrel, is it screwed on, are both the barrel and die threaded? If not how is it fixed?

Bender24601 on Jul 21, 2013 said:

Both are threaded and the die is just screwed on

nothing11 on Jun 22, 2013 said:

hi Bender

can you upload the .step files for downloading.
Thx

Tesseract on Jun 21, 2013 said:

Hi again How long would you say after the filament extrudes before it can be say bent in a "u" shape to be spooled

Bender24601 on Jun 28, 2013 said:

Depends on your cooling, if you have a fan cooling the filament you can bend it very quickly after extruding. You have to make sure however that no stress or strain is placed on any filament that is not cured yet.

charlespax on Jun 13, 2013 said:

Any source files? I only see the binary PDFs and STLs.

Bender24601 on Jun 14, 2013 said:

Hi,

what format would be useful for you? The original format from CATIA V5 but if you really need the source files i could see if I can upload .step files.

marcoherremans on May 29, 2013 said:

where did you buy that hot and?

Bender24601 on May 29, 2013 said:

Do you mean the heater cartridge? From here:

http://www.sensorshop24.de/Hei...

gizmo on May 25, 2013 said:

Hello,

Small night reflection on your project; -)

The idea is to realize again more piece in plastic: Therefore did you try these points?

- Augersleeve with a bigger thickness to avoid the breaks
- the pipe under the hopper for it is not in contact with the hot party therefore it should not melt. Can be a warm-up problem by the shearing but speed is weak

Bender24601 on May 26, 2013 said:

The auger sleeve is a piece that has to take a lot of torque and other forces. Its the piece connecting the motor to the auger, therefore taking the full amount of force that this extruder is generating. It also needs to be threaded since it has to take the shaft nut holding the thrust bearing in place.

The pipe under the hopper is not made from plastic for two reasons:
- While the pipe is insulated from the hot area by the PEEK, the auger also becomes hot during operation, which would cause the plastic to soften.
- When granules get stuck between the auger and the walls of the pipe quite a large force is exerted on these. This would cause the pipe to break, especially if already warm and a little soft from the heat of the auger.

Tesseract on May 24, 2013 said:

The link you have for the NEMA 23 geared motor
http://www.phidgets.com/produc...

is showing the part is discontinued and is replaced by a NEMA 17 at this link but you mentioned the NEMA17 seemed to be under powered.

Do you think this will hold true for the replacement NEMA17 mentioned here

http://www.phidgets.com/produc...

Bender24601 on May 24, 2013 said:

If you do end up trying the NEMA17 I designed a pretty solid mounting for it. Let me know and try to upload the file,

Bender24601 on May 24, 2013 said:

Sadly i noticed that it was discontinued. Im not sure that the NEMA17 you mentioned will have enough torque. I think i SHOULD be ok since the NEMA 17 I tried had considerably less and was ony barely failing, but i really can't guarantee for anything.

I think iyou should be on the safe side if you go with something like this:
http://www.stepperonline.com/g...

Keep in mind that i'm not all too hapy with the motor I have though because of low speeds. But also if you want to increase the speed you probably need more torque...

Revolve3D on May 24, 2013 said:

How's the Nema 23 working out for this project? The design looks very nice

Bender24601 on May 24, 2013 said:

In the way of torque its great (don't forget that its geared). But its a little too slow.

gizmo on May 22, 2013 said:

Very beautiful and good work! Design version German; -)

The hardest remainder to do for it is necessary now to compose the thesis with all the ideas than you have in head. But you there will arrive!

I will look at your documents but effectively the black point is extrusion speed for it is necessary 113 meters about for 1KG of 3mm and 333 meters for the 1,75 mm.

Noch gute Arbeit!
tchuss bis nachher

gizmo on May 22, 2013 said:

Small question: Which is the dynamometric power to take a ride screw?

andrewupandabout on May 21, 2013 said:

Looking forward to more updates! You'll have a bunch of supporters if/when you go public. Andrew (3dhacker.com)

Bender24601 on May 22, 2013 said:

Thanks for your support. Check the update, most files are uploaded.

MichaelAtOz on May 21, 2013 said:

HEY EVERYONE! Give the guy a break!!

He said "I'm am a little reluctant to release too many files at the moment
since it is still in the development phase.
...
The thesis is due around mid June, and I expect I will be able to release most of the information a little before that."

Thingiverse is NOT an on-demand design facility.

When it is ready, it will be ready. STOP pestering him, I imagine finishing HIS studies is much more important than YOUR desire to make something.

gizmo on May 21, 2013 said:

I understand your speech. But his project is very interesting and I think that if it began communicating it is that it wants to communicate over.

The objective is also to exchange to understand and to improve

gizmo on May 21, 2013 said:

Hello bender, I hope that you advance well, I am impatient to be able to read your thesis!

You have the possibility to put the plan or more of detail on the piece that allows linking up the screw with the motor. I try to set up the 2 but without true success.

Thank you

Bender24601 on May 22, 2013 said:

Hi, if you check the update you will find a link to most of the files you are looking for. The piece linking the screw to the motor is:

http://www.pe.mw.tum.de/lehrst...

Bender24601 on May 21, 2013 said:

Hi,

as of this moment I don't have the OK to publish the technical plans for this thing. I am talking to the university and they are telling me that probably by the end of next week I SHOULD be able to upload the plans and files needed to build this extruder.

Astrolab on May 17, 2013 said:

If I well understood you want to realize a device to a reasonable price!

Then how you check the motor for normally it is necessary to go through a special card but then the price of the card and motor become important even if you reduce the remainder of the components.

Or then you use another mean to check the motor

gizmo on May 16, 2013 said:

Hi, you use "direct or indirect" gear motor drive?

Bender24601 on May 16, 2013 said:

Indirect

TomB19 on May 13, 2013 said:

Personally, I think the hopper should be round so you can insert a piece of ABS pipe and expand the hopper as large as desired.

Bender24601 on May 14, 2013 said:

You have a point here, I might modify it if and when i get a chance.

Berthaud on May 11, 2013 said:

Hello

Until you publish your plans to build your prototype eager extruded filament I would like to have plans length sleeves to study barrel screw.

Thank you

SlaveMassaDrivaJDCUBED on May 11, 2013 said:

Just use a drill bit for the screw. I made a recyclable plastic extruder for bathtiles using a wood bit and some threaded pipe, a heating jacket, a dimmer switch (to control temp), and an old sausage maker. Truth

bottleworks on May 9, 2013 said:

Very Clean Design!

gizmo on May 9, 2013 said:

Hello, Very good project!

While awaiting the plans and the list of equipment, I have some questions:

- How and where is the plastic one heated?

- Does A what serve the white washer?

- How is machined the pipe nozzle?

- Does not The plastic one melt? (While it is set up on the tube?)

- What is the sku of the screw?

Thank you

Bender24601 on May 9, 2013 said:

The plastic is heated at the nozzle with a 200W cartridge heater.

I assume you mean the piece of plastic between the two metal pipes with "white washer". It is a piece of PEEK to insulate the two pieces of metal pipe from each other so the feedsection doesn't get too hot.

The pipe nozzle is lathed. This is the most complex part of the machine and im not yet sure how to simplify it.

Temperatures behind the PEEK have only reached about 40-50 degrees Celsius

This is the screw: http://www.amazon.de/dp/B001AD...

Regards

gaiaaxiom on May 9, 2013 said:

drew up something similar to this at work today, but I decided to go a different route. definitely a sexy machine I applaud you.

Bender24601 on May 9, 2013 said:

Thank you

corsu on May 8, 2013 said:

Hello
Your
project caught my attention I do not know
when you publish your thesis
also would it be possible to
have more information on the subject.
Your publication has the merit to
be known until the publication.
The only regret that you have not
started to publish files.
Congratulations more than 3,000 visitors
to see your
publication.
Cordially.

Bender24601 on May 8, 2013 said:

Hi,

im am a little reluctant to release too many files at the moment since it is still in the development phase. What information are you after, maybe I have a quick answer...

The thesis is due around mid June, and I expect I will be able to release most of the information a little before that.

sneakypoo on May 5, 2013 said:

How is the diameter consistency on these home made extruders? Is it accurate enough to use straight away or do you have to process it further somehow (pulling it through a die or something?)?

Bender24601 on May 5, 2013 said:

I'm pretty sure that the filament produced in the Lyman can already be used straight away. The plan for mine is definitely to have a very good consistency so that it can be used without further processing. The first tests I have made seem promising.

Berthaud on May 4, 2013 said:

Hello
This includes your thesis as you took on the filament extrusion 3D printers that invade us every day. Your approach let us know your project gives us hope that the new machine would fill the lack of performance of the known machines. When you say it is not necessary to have a higher extrusion rate charged to users who use an extruder filament does not share your point of view. I think that given the ergonomics of your machine, it will certainly be possible to make it more efficient with your help if possible as does Lyman for 4 machines. Just ask those who uses a filament extruder for a coil it takes hours? An hour or two it would be reasonable to have a coil when you have done your test you will understand. Your machine will bring anything new to the machines that you need to know.
THANK YOU
Etienne Berthaud

Berthaud on May 4, 2013 said:

Hello
From my point of view when your examiner will judge your thesis will be based on its content the screw is the main thing. Not forgotten that you have a degree. I'll ask you how long it takes to make a coil of 100 meters of 3 m / m
The machines that I know As Lyman and others take hours for a reel? Is it possible for those that want to have a successful filament extruder having the characteristics of a screw to buy the screw in China. For a price must be given characteristics. I'm sure it will involve a large number of people.
[email protected]
Thank you

Bender24601 on May 4, 2013 said:

Since this is still a work in progress I don't have exact numbers on extrusion speed. However I can tell you that it will also be somewhere around the speeds that the Lyman Extruder can achieve. If you look at the uses for a machine such a this there is no need for a high extrusion rate.

The thesis is not based on the screw, it is much more based on the methodical development of a filament extruder that contains a high number of printed parts. Another factor in the thesis is keeping the costs low (not quite as low as the Lyman since more parts are machined).

I looked at getting screws manufactured and bought in China, but I can assure you that this would take more time and money that was available for this thesis.

yzorg on May 4, 2013 said:

Cool!
I have a pledge running for one of those Filabots.

And i hope to succesfully modify a garden-shredder so i can generate the rawmaterial from waste prints and maybe PET bottles and other stuff...

Tesseract on May 24, 2013 said:

If you are looking at 3d printing make sure you look at the melting temps you will need for printing some of these. Materials like plastic 2 liter bottles require a higher temp then nylon and in many case the printheads have issues at such temps. Many of the current printers can use nylon but it tends to be towards the end of the extreme and going much beyond that may require significant changes to the printheads

Berthaud on May 4, 2013 said:
Berthaud on May 4, 2013 said:

Hello

In your capacity
as future engineer I congratulate you on your project extruder filament. I have
two important questions about the screw? To have a higher rate of filament I
invite you to see It seems to me for a PhD engineer should put a screw Barrel is
an argument that will hold your examiners. http://www.pm-llc.net/Xaloy%20...
Making filament in a 100 meter coil of 1.75 m / m or 3m / m how many
hours? This is the main question. [email protected]

Greetings

E.B

Bender24601 on May 4, 2013 said:

Hi,

while I agree that having a proper auger screw would increase production speed and quality (especially since industrial extruding of ABS usually requires a vented auger) the price is simply too high,

MichaelAtOz on May 3, 2013 said:

Looks good. What's in the large round blue section? Seems too big compared to the shaft section there.

Bender24601 on May 3, 2013 said:

That's the bearing. Its designed so large since the pieces are printed and because of the dimensions of the bearings I used. It will be a bit more obvious once I upload all the design files.

jpearce on May 3, 2013 said:

Fantastic work -- very impressive!

Bender24601 on May 3, 2013 said:

Its on the list of To-Do s

nonaak on May 3, 2013 said:

Soo super cool, nice job. I hope that the buldplans come qwiq

notstarman on May 3, 2013 said:

I assume your are using a stepper motor drive system it to get the best control over the feed rate of the plastic as its being extruded?

ibudmen on May 5, 2013 said:

+1 I'm also curious about this. I've been using a beefy 12V geared motor from a tractor supply store on my filament extruder, I would much prefer the control of the a stepper though..

Smoutech on May 3, 2013 said:

I take it your screw is an Auger drill bit .... ? At school we have lots of HIPS off-cuts after vacuum forming. I'm sure I've seen a mini shredder somewhere. So, turn your hopper upright and we'd reduce our cost and/or get colour mixed projects. Keep up the good work! Have a look at WobbleWorks 3Doodler (KickStarter) too.

Bender24601 on May 3, 2013 said:

Yes, the screw is an Auger drill bit.

Bender24601 on May 3, 2013 said:

I've seen a couple of cool shredders too. Actually, as part of the thesis i'm also making a shredder with at least a printed case. Work on that is still in progress and will also be posted.

dreameredeemer on May 3, 2013 said:

Holy... AWESOME!! If your Uni doesn't want you to publish... well, you can't really help it if you get "hacked" and the files "leaked," right?

Bender24601 on May 3, 2013 said:

Thanks for your message :) Im very hopeful that they will allow me to publish, I have asked already and they don't seem opposed to the idea

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