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what version marlin? I tested pulling out heating element and thermistor with skynet (marlin fork) and it detected it and shut off

in that picture your thermistor and heating element are taken out of the heat block and are hanging on the side, so it is safe to assume it was a thermal runaway. also, what's that black tape looking stuff wrapped around thermistor and heating element, did you wrap the plastic coil close to hot end? it doesn't look like burnt polyimide tape but more like burnt plastic or electrical tape

I would highly recommend e3d split style heat blocks to everyone to prevent heating element coming out, skynet to prevent thermal runaway (later marlin may work but I tested skynet to work myself), and soldering heat bed wires