I don't speak German unfortunately, but luckily Google translate does! So if you want to create the dodecahedron sliced along its 3-fold axis, like shown in the photo, then print 3 copies of dodec_piece_3fold.stl. If you want to create the icosahedron, sliced along its 2-fold axis, then print 2 copies of icos_piece_2fold.stl, and so forth.
So this was not exactly created in OpenSCAD. I use something called SolidPython, which lets me program in Python, but which creates OpenSCAD code. Does that make sense? I included the Python code, which is contained in a Jupyter notebook; see the file platonic_spiral.ipynb.