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If the output swings between 0 and 4.99 (or 5v) that means the calibration process was not right. When you press the calibration button, it takes a measurement of what ever is in there and then calibrates that to a 1.57v output. If it reads a 0 (or a low reading) for any reason it creates a very large calibration factor making the output swing between 0 and the maximum. This is because the factor = 1.57/0= infinity (or a large number) . Some reasons the calibration process could fail if: - the calibration rod is not flat against the sensor, There is light reflections in the case (no paint), there is dust or dirt on the sensor, the LED light is not uniform on the image sensor because it is blocked by something. One test you can do is do the calibration on the 3mm filament. Then you should see a reading of 1.57v or so when the 3mm filament is in there. If you try other filament slightly larger/smaller, the output will change from 1.57v. (eg 2.8mm yields 2.8/3.0*1.57v=1.46v) If this works, then we know the board works, but it is a calibration issue. Another test you can do is take the pc board out of the case and in a darkened room, lay the calibration rod on the sensor and hold the LED to shine down on the sensor and try to calibrate that way. You can then lay filament on the sensor and see if you get good readings that way. Then it might be an issue with the 3D printed case.