P6*6 120 Pinhole Camera

by schlem, published

P6*6 120 Pinhole Camera by schlem Oct 6, 2013

Featured Thing!


*HEY! This was a great camera, but my newer stuff is better! Please check out the terraPin It is directly descended from the P6*6. Also, the new ACME is completely 3Dprinted and assembles without fasteners!! All my newer camera designs are much simpler to build and better to shoot than the P6*6!

This pinhole camera shoots medium-format 120 film! Shoots a 6X6 cm frame!

NEWS FLASH - Illustrated assembly instructions in MAKE: magazine edition #41 out Sept 2014 !! Recently republished in Best of Make Vol 2!

New P6*6W - Wide Angle version - Kodak Ektar 100, Fuji Acros 100 and Fuji Velvia 50 transparency film:

New Butta Shutta for remote cable release
Look for addendum to user's guide, but more info here:
Viewfinders! You asked for 'em, I designed 'em - more info here: http://www.thingiverse.com/thing:363857
An alternative set of parts has been designed to capture a wider angle of view. The original P6*6 already shoots a fairly wide angle frame at 62 deg horizontally; the P6*6W shoots an angle of 77.5 deg horizontally. For comparison, a 50mm lens on a 35mm film camera has a 40 deg horizontal angle of view.
The wider angle means a faster camera too: f/135 vs f/167. Details in Instructions.
-------------- P6*6 Specs --------------
50mm focal length
designed for a 0.30mm pinhole
f-stop of f/167
62 degree horiz. field of view.
-------------- P6*6W Specs --------------
35mm focal length
designed for a 0.26mm pinhole
f-stop of f/135
77.4 deg horiz. field of view.
Photos from the P6*6 are posted here:

Processing by Moon Photo, Seattle http://www.moonphotolab.com/
Images on Flickr may differ from raw scans in contrast and brightness.
The P6*6 traveled to Amsterdam for Worldwide Pinhole Photography Day 2014
On that rainy day, I spoke with one of the organizers of our AMS meetup, Alex Yates of Pinholista.com, about 3D printing and pinhole photography on the Pinhole Podcast
Visit the 3D Printed Cameras group on Flickr
The mission is to share and promote open source cameras and related parts, created with CAD applications and 3D printing. Please join and post content!
If you download this from somewhere besides Thingiverse, and printed it, please post pics on this thingiverse.com page! Please - I want to recognize and support you too
I understand skepticism; I hope that if you have been delaying your pinhole photographic adventures, the onslaught of my dubiously composed and poorly-chosen subject matter will convince you that this camera works and that you can print one and shoot photos!
As to how to build and use the P6*6 - All is revealed in the new User's Guide. Anyone can put this camera together and create amazing photographs. Assembly is detailed and simplified in a new document: "P66_assy_revised.pdf"
No 3D printer yet?
I have obsoleted the P6*6, but I offer my newer cameras available assembled in full on Tindie
Hate the flat shutter plate on front of the "lens"? Dress it up a bit with the trim plate and pinhole cap!
Worried that the friction-fit of the cap on the body could pop open and ruin your film? (IFAIK, this has never happened) A Sliding Body Clip secures the cap securely to the body, preventing a dreaded accidental exposure of your film.
NEW!! Thingiversian iandoubleyou designed a clip for the knob-side for extra security! Give it a look-see and consider printing this addition.

New, photographic filter adapter! Use neutral density filters to slow exposure times, or colored filters for effects. Not just for the P66, good for any camera without a threaded lens barrel:
And a tiny P6
6 keychain!
I have shot dozens of rolls of film through this camera now. I find this camera a delight to shoot. I am very happy with the frame indexing. Like any camera, excessive movement during exposures will blur your image. This makes very short exposures (1-2 seconds) impractical for best results unless you can absolutely immobilize the camera. A neutral density filter (which increases exposure duration by whole stops) or a remote shutter release mechanism will address this limitation and is a future improvement I plan to make. Alternately, for "quick" exposures, you can cover the pinhole with your finger, open the shutter and (literally) manually time your exposure with your finger, then close the shutter - another old-time pinhole trick.
Incorporating aubenc's Knurled Surface Library V2, and modeled around the handy 120 Film Spool by Jakebot, the P66 builds on the PINHE4D and PINH5AD pinhole cameras designs.
12-6-13 After some experimentation with different 120 films, I find that some spools are slightly larger than others. This affects the clearance at the winder spool and rotating baffle (small slotted disk); the cap will not snap completely shut. I haven't suffered any damage to negatives from this, but, just to be sure, I have reworked the baffle to a thinner 2mm thickness. You can download and print either the whole winder assembly (knob, baffle, drive) or just the baffle. I suggest having a spare knob and drive handy if you try the Film Clip accessory: http://www.thingiverse.com/thing:197924
__New Wider angle version P6
6W f/135
Exposure duration table updated including:__

  • Fuji Neopan Acros 100 B&W neg film
  • Ilford Delta 100 B&W neg film
  • Kodak Ektar 100 Color neg film
  • Fuji Velvia 100 Color slide film
  • Fuji Velvia 50 Color slide film
  • Ilford FP4 B&W neg film
  • Kodak 400TX B&W neg film

This work is licensed under the Creative Commons - Attribution - Non-Commercial license. This license applies only to the files and documents available for download from the Thing Files section of this Thing.
All other related content (photographs, videos, and verbiage such as contained in "Description" or "Instructions" ) are excluded from this license. with all rights reserved, unless specifically available for download This notice constitutes a clarification, not a change, to licensing for this design.


If you have questions, please post a comment - I try to be very responsive to Thinginauts.

Are all these parts confusing? Don't know what to print?
NEW zipped part collections of 50mm and 35mm variants.
See Thing Files

*New P66W - wide angle version*
Assembly is essentially the same as for the original P6
6, using the following alternate parts:

  • p66_35mm_extension
  • New_shutter_plate
    which consists of the following four parts:
  • New_shutter_blade
  • New_shutter_clamp
  • New_pinhole_clamp
  • New_trim_ring

    See "P66_Users_Guide_x,doc" for instructions on printing, assembly, and photography" Also P66_assy_revised.pdf contains better diagrams and assembly instructions. These documents will be merged in the future.
    *"makevol41-P6X6.pdf" is an article I wrote for MAKE: Magazine #41 on assembling the P66. It is a distillation of the original user's guide assembly section, with better graphics.*
    NOTE When unloading the camera, and as the full spool is removed, the film might be loose on the spool and not fully protected from light by the backing paper.
    I have designed a film clip which slides in with the empty take-up spool and prevents the film from unspooling (and subsequent light leaks) when unloading the P6
    6, It is an easy fix, requiring no modifications to the camera. There is a small lip inside the cavity that will prevent the clip from rotating.
    See: http://www.thingiverse.com/thing:197924
    Everything is designed to fit on the smallest of 3D printer beds, the largest dimension being just more than 5 inches (128mm). If you print on something smaller, the large parts could be rotated 45 degrees. If this is a limitation for you, let me know, and I will supply a suitably modified file. Also - only tested with BLACK ABS - if you want/need to print this in another color/material, a couple coats of a flat black paint on all interior surfaces will guarantee a light-proof camera.
    You can see additional pics of p6*6 prototyping at:
    ----- Printed Bits ------
    Camera body
    50mm or 35mm extension
    Camera cap and winder assembly
    Shutter plate or New Shutter plate (with pinhole disc)
    (all parts are also available non-plated)
    ----- Non-Printed Bits ------
    4 x 3mm-16mm long socket bolts, washers, and nuts
    1/4 - 20 flanged nut (for tripod mount)
    Pinhole 0.30mm -50mm focal length
    Pinhole 0.26mm -35mm focal length
    I highly recommended that you find some translucent red plastic film and some self-adhesive black velvet or felt. See User's Guide for more infomation.
    Recently included is an Exposure Duration document for several readily-available films with reciprocity failure. If you can expand on this, please share.
    I hope that the various Pinhead Pinhole cameras arouse an interest in this marvelous photography genre. Also refer to PINHE4D or PINH5AD for links to technical information and tutorials.
    I remain at your disposal should you have questions.
    Here's a couple of videos that explain the basics of pinhole photogaphy (worth a watch!):
    Part 1
    Part 2
    An encyclopedic article with cross references:
    A self-described comprehensive pinhole tutorial:
    The basics from Kodak - a quick and dirty primer.
    Make your own pinhole:
    Pinhole Designer - an excellent pinhole design and exposure calulator. The reciprocity failure function is gold. Sadly, Windows only, but worth it.
    Mr. Pinhole - More calculators and more links.
    Worldwide Pinhole Photography Day:
    A paper pinhole camera, 2D printed in a Czechoslovakian magazine, in the 1970's: http://www.pinhole.cz/en/pinholecameras/dirkon_01.html
    Books, books, books; Knowledge is power:

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hey I'v bin printing all the parts but I cant find one of them. The p66_50m extension is not big enough for the rest of the parts.
can sum one help me

OK, I need you to unpack this a bit.
"printing all the parts but I cant find one of them"
"The p66_50m extension is not big enough for the rest of the parts."

These appear to be two separate and unrelated problems.
Which part can you not find?
I assure you that the 50mm extension and associated parts are properly sized. What is not fitting correctly?
I'm happy to help you with your camera, but I need specifics. If you can take pics or screen captures, that will help me understand your issues.

Hello Schlem,
I was wondering where/how to get the pinhole for the camera...
I am printing the 35 mm right now, so I would be loking for a 26 mm, but...
Do we make our own? If so how?

Don't pay for pinholes unless you are independently wealthy. You can make a pinhole for free that is the equal to an expensive laser-drilled aperture. THIS is essentially how I do it. I use my trusty digital (metal) calipers instead of a micrometer, but they work equally well. I have taken to some additional geekery in that I now double check my apertures for size and roundness with a digital microscope. I am usually within 0.05mm of the desired diameter. The precision of your pinhole is vastly less critical than other aspects of the project, like using absolutely opaque filament and careful assembly to prevent light leaks. Thanks for the question! I hope you post your camera build and your photography!

Hi Schlem,

I only have access to a 3D printer with ABS which I'll be covering with flat black paint.
Which of the 4 cameras (P66, terraPin 6x6, Bijou, Prime) do you recommend printing given my current setup or does it even matter?
Would ABS be as opaque as some of the PLA kinds you mention?
Also I notice the improvement in image quality with the terraPin, Bijou and Prime over the P6
6 (even though my opinion is only based on the photos you've provided). I especially like the terraPin 6x6, given the additional 25.4mm and 18mm extensions. Would it be okay to print the terraPin 6x6 using ABS?
Which camera would you recommend printing in terms of overall quality (crispiness, etc.)?

Thank you for your amazing work!!!

Thanks for the very kind words. Colored ABS is typically more opaque than PLA. Having said that, I printed the PINHE4D (135 film) in red ABS, and it was still too translucent. ABS is an ideal material for making cameras, and if you can obtain black, you will be so much happier for it. Seriously, get some black ABS. I have tried paint and it is very disappointing.

The P6*6 is a handsome camera and very popular, but the terraPins are better in a number of ways. They are easier to assemble, with fewer vitamins and better tolerances. Essentially, if you can print a shape, say a 20mm cube, and then another shape with a cubical hole 20.5mm in size, and the cube fits snugly in the hole without much fettling, your printer can tackle the terraPins. The Prime is the easiest camera to assemble and has reasonable instructions on the Thing page. AFAIK, no one has claimed first build on the Prime yet, and I would love your feedback on the instructions.

As a person who designs cameras, I try to be completely objective about the capabilities of my designs. Of course, I cherry-pick my favorite photos to host on Thingiverse, but ALL my photos are on Flickr and I welcome everyone to peruse what my cameras do. I am diligent about metering my subject matter and I get consistent, predictable results. Some of my favorite photos were created with the P66 (and some stellar duds), but as I have gone further down this rabbit hole, I have both gotten better at the craft of pinhole photography, and I have embraced shorter "focal lengths" and smaller apertures. A short, wide image on 120 film is going to look much sharper than the 50mm P66. I also take great care to make my own pinholes, checking them with a digital microscope for size and roundness. Making the pinhole is fairly easy and the cameras are designed to allow for disassembly if you want to experiment or iterate your apertures.

Right now, I am totally enamored with the results I am getting from the Prime. I have also just designed a 6X4.5 version that is compact and gives 16 exposures per roll, with a "focal length" of 26.75 mm. The terraPin Bijou is similar, with FLs of 35mm and 25.54mm as options.

Thank you for the great questions and your interest in my pinhole cameras. If I can be of any further help, please don't hesitate to ask - your questions may help someone else. I derive great satisfaction from people like you, printing, building, and shooting my cameras.

Hi Todd,

Thanks for taking the time to respond. The ABS machine I have access to is a Dimension printer. It currently prints in white plastic and it seems that in order to print in black, I would need to provide my own cartridge, a $160 cost for the required brand!
I just found out though that my lab also has a Makerbot and an Ultimaker, a much more cost-effective option. I am looking to buy a 1Kg spool of black Maker Filament PLA and another spool in a brighter color for some of the external components. I think this is one of your recommended PLA brands that passed the opacity test: http://www.makergeeks.com/mafipla1daas.html. Will 1 spool do? I'm still choosing between the 6x6 Terrapin and the Prime to print.

Thanks a bunch!

Yes! Makergeeks black PLA is awesome. The price is good, the quality is as good or better than anything I have used. You will be SOOOOO much happier with black PLA. A spool should allow you to print 4-6 (or more!) cameras, depending on model. The Makergeeks PLA needs to be printed at slightly higher temperature than other PLA. I print Shaxon at 190, and MakerGeeks at 210 (Lulzbot Taz 4) The absolute values may be meaningless to your printer, but the 20 degree difference is important. You will benefit by printing something small but complex as a test object before committing to a camera. Also, printing many small parts at the same time works better than one small part at a time. I am going to put in another pitch for the Prime. I am very happy with it.

Thanks for the tips! I think you convinced me to print the Prime. I did find different size spools on Makergeeks' website like the 3mm PLA versus the 1.75mm I showed you. Does it matter?

The extruder in your 3D printer will be designed for either 1.75mm or 3mm diameter filament. You must obtain the proper size. If you don't know, the spools being used will always be labeled, but it is easy to measure.

PS I am designing a Prime key fob for fun. Look for it to be published soon.

HI! do i have to print all the parts or some of them are updates from other, if i don`t have to print all of them, would you tell me which are the ones i do have to print? THANKS

Hi thanks for the question.

"Are all these parts confusing? Don't know what to print?
NEW zipped part collections of 50mm and 35mm variants.
See Thing Files"

There is a lot of information here about printing and using this camera, including a VERY comprehensive assembly manual, an article from MAKE: magazine, and lots of questions and answers in the form of comments. At a minimum, I would hope that Thing Details might be perused by a person contemplating this intermediate project.

The confusing nature of the various versions and iterations of the P6*6 has led to extensive development of BETTER, EASIER-TO-ASSEMBLE pinhole camera designs, like the terraPin 6X6, Bijou, and the new Prime.

The terraPin Prime is especially simple to print and assemble. I recommend it.

terraPin, a 120 Film Pinhole Photography System
by schlem
terraPin Bijou 6 x 4.5 Pinhole Camera
by schlem
terraPin Prime 6X6 Pinhole Camera -120 Film
by schlem

Hi xeelbug!

The first link didn't work for me, but yes, any 120 film will work in the P6*6 (and terraPin) pinhole cameras. You can get good results by adjusting your exposure for the f/number of the camera (f/135 or f/167) but many people shoot pinhole "by feel". However, you can get great results by metering your shot and adjusting your exposure for the "reciprocity failure" of the film you're using.
It may be difficult to obtain RF data for esoteric or discontinued film brands, and some experimentation may be in order.

I hope you print the camera and share your photos!

Finally! First four P6*6 rolls back from developing and very pleased with the results.

I used the Light meter wheel app on my iPhone to set my shutter speed https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/light-meter-wheel/id720707253?mt=8
First I tested the readings against my DSLR and found them to be fairly close so I used that for all the shots

Here are some of the results

Thanks again Schlem!


Great Shots! Well done! Stunning. I love what you've done with the velvia! May I share a link to your photos via @theschlem on twillter?

Sure - please do

what is the best film for this camera, speed wise?

No such thing.
Like any camera, the speed of the film (or sensor) is an aesthetic or practical decision for the photographer. A pinhole camera has a fixed aperture (with a large and static f-number, like f/167), but the other elements of photographic exposure remain: film speed, exposure duration, available light. I find that one of the practical limitations of pinhole photography is my ability to open and close the shutter quickly for a brightly-lit scene without shaking the camera (even when using a tripod). For that reason, I like a slow film like Velvia50. The delightful fact that Velvia50 is a profoundly beautiful transparency film is another compelling reason to shoot with it. For dimly lit scenes however, Velvia50 is not going to give me the rich colors I expect in daylight. I may use an ISO 400 film (B&W or color) for dimmer light.
Another consideration that comes into play is how a given film reacts to long exposures. "Reciprocity Failure" requires that additional time be added to exposures longer than some film-specific threshold. This effect is unrelated to labeled film speed (ISO), and should be considered. Some films need no compensation up to minutes, while others need exposure adjustments for seconds-long durations. Every film has a unique reciprocity failure profile, which may or may not be well documented by the manufacturer. If you plan to make night-time pinhole exposures, it behooves you to understand how your chosen films will behave for hours-long exposures.
If you're just starting out, use black and white for experimentation - you can usually get a good image from poor exposures.
I always use a light meter and a pre-calculated exposure chart. I try to avoid guessing exposure duration.

P66_shutter_parts.stl is crashing the makerbot app. There are problems in the mesh? Is there a new file?

Unfortunately, I can't support Makerbot's software, lacking same.
The parts slice without error in several versions of Slic3r.
Try repairing your copy of the STL with Netfabb: https://netfabb.azurewebsites.net/
Try using Bre's re-mixed plate: http://www.thingiverse.com/thing:260478
or printing each part separately:
Hope that helps!

Schlem's P6*6 Camera - All the parts in one Thing file
by bre

thank you, i'll work on it, I'm supposed this has not come up before

Is there any instructions on how thick the parts should be printed. in other words, does the standard 2 walls with 10% infill keep the light out or do we need to print with more solid infill?

For black ABS, 2 perimeters is usually fine (PLA is often translucent), but I would print at least 50% infill for strength. There are extensive instructions in the P6*6 user's manual and a copy of the MAKE: Magazine article on assembling the camera. Both documents are included in the library of Thing Files.

Hope that's helpful.

thank you very much, we look forward to producing this model

Lehman College CUNY

I'm glad you are so enthusiastic about this camera. I would suggest you take a look at http://www.thingiverse.com/thing:495230, the latest evolution from the P66. It has a number of features that I think are nice improvements. However, I have taken the P66 all over the world and it works equally well.

terraPin, a 120 Film Pinhole Photography System
by schlem
Comments deleted.

Can I put the butta shutta on this?

Yes! You will find there is a Butter Shutter STL in the downloadable files for the P6*6. It requires a bit of fiddling and fitting, but it reportedly works very well.

For more information see: http://www.thingiverse.com/thing:395523

Butta Shutta for the P6*6 Pinhole Camera
by schlem

How long did this take to make?


Not sure exactly what you're asking but I will take a few guesses.

  • I spent several weeks working on the bits for the prototype (which I have taken to Europe and Canada and still shoot), but I have been refining the design for more than a year.
  • I can print the necessary collection of ~14 parts in about 10 hours
  • I can assemble a camera from scratch, including finishing and making a pinhole in about 90 minutes - See the article from MAKE: #41 on how to put it together.

Thanks for the question!

I would really like to see a panorama version capable of 6x12 exposures. Like the zero image cameras: http://www.zeroimage.com/web2003/EntryPage/entryFrameset2012.html

Yup. Stay tuned. I get a lot of requests for wide/ pano versions of my cameras. I have more ideas than time... but I'm working hard at them in the Schlaboratory!

Hey, just wondering how long it takes to print this?

It kind of depends on the capabilities of your 3D printer. I can print all the parts in a 12 hour day in several plates of grouped parts on a Printrbot +. For this camera, I have used ABS and an infill of at least 50%. This is a moderately detailed collection of parts and you won't want this to print too fast. HTH

Comments deleted.

I am just starting on this project
I downloaded all the files but don't see one for the Film Clip
is that no longer required or has that file just disappeared into the thingiverse diodes

In the meantime, the film clip is a standalone item: http://www.thingiverse.com/thing:197924 The one marked "25" should be the right fit, provided it is printed with the same 3D printer as your camera body.
Sorry for the confusion.

120 FIlm Clip for P6*6 Pinhole Camera
by schlem

What the...?
No, it's highly recommended that you use it to keep the film from unspooling during unloading. I must have inadvertently deleted it with some junk STLs. I will get that re-posted, right quick.


Hi, I'm new to pinhole cameras but I am really interested in trying this out. I have a question and hope someone could help.

I've printed a 35mm extension but I can see it needs a 0.26mm pinhole. I can only find 0.3mm pinhole online to buy. Should I buy the 0.3mm pin hole and print a 50mm extension, or will 0.3 be fine on the 35mm extension?

Just to put a number on it, f/117 is about 1/3 of a stop faster than f/135. This is really a non-significant difference for many films, especially B&W. HTH

Hey sshum!
Thanks for the great question. It will absolutely work with a slightly larger pinhole. A 0.30 mm aperture will make your camera slightly faster at f/117 than the f/135 as designed. Depending on the film you use, you may not even notice a difference, but subtract some time (15-20%?) from your exposures (see the exposure chart for the P6*6W) as an experiment. If you have a digital caliper or micrometer you can make a reasonably precise pinhole. Look in the links for something called "Drill your own precision pinholes" or similar. I will try to post some adjusted exposure durations for an f/117 pinhole camera soon. Hope that helps - lemme know if you have other questions. PS look for assembly instructions in MAKE: magazine #41, coming out now!

Hey, Pinhole Photographers (and the curious)!
These smart folks like to talk about the tools and techniques of pinhole photography.
Give the Pinhole Podcast a listen:

just an idea: did you think of giving the 50mm extension a slight curvature, so the distance between the pinhole and the image plane remais the same, thus avoiding slight blurring toward the edges of the image?! that should still fit in the housing maybe with some minor adjustments to the housing (or an insert?!) to press the film firmly at the extension...
secondly i think the pinhole calculations are possibly outdated (formula by Rayleigh) for 50mm i found 0.26mm and for 35mm 0.2mm pinhole might be more suiteable. I got a 0.3mm and 0.25mm pinhole and will make a comparision on the 50mm extension....

Hey, Thanks for your thoughtful input. I have spent an immense amount of time thinking about curved film planes in (3D printed) pinhole cameras. But not for either version of the P6*6, and I'll tell you why. I apologize in advance if I sound pedantic, but I want everyone to be able to follow the discussion. What you are discussing is optical vignetting (as opposed to mechanical or physical obstruction) that occurs around the perimeter of a pinhole photograph. The exposure of the film is directly related to how large the pinhole (aperture) is and for how long the film is exposed. The problem with any flat plane of film/sensor is that the distance from the aperture to the periphery is farther than to the center. This is also termed "light fall-off" and the net effect is that the periphery of the film needs to receive light for longer than the center for an absolutely equivalent exposure. In other words, the periphery will be underexposed compared to the center of the film. In a square format camera this fall-off is uniform and fairly trivial for all but very wide-angle pinhole cameras. For the P6*6, with a frame of 56mm x 56mm, and with a 50mm "focal length", and a 0.30mm pinhole, the very center of the film has a speed or "f-number" of f/167. However, at the center of any edge of the frame, the distance to the aperture is 57.3mm, with a speed or f-number of f/191. This is still less than a 1/3 stop decrease in speed. But at the corners, the distance to the aperture increases, yet more, to 63.78mm, and a corresponding f-number of f/213 - right at +1/3 stop, generally considered a trivial difference. The P6*6 was designed for FDM 3D printers and avoids the complications of excessive overhang and support by virtue of how it is printed in various parts and then assembled. The frame (the bottom of the extension) prints flat on the print bed and makes a glass-smooth scratch-free surface for the film to slide across with minimal finishing. For this iteration of this design, I felt that was more important than minimizing a trivial optical effect (although generally considered a defect in lensed cameras). Examining photos made with the 50mm P6*6 show very little optical vignetting in the corners. The P6*6W, however, with a "focal distance" of 35mm starts to exhibit significant optical vignetting at the corners of some images, and you can see this (to me, pleasing) effect on many of the images in this Flickr album: https://www.flickr.com/photos/theschlem/sets/72157645030373964/https://www.flickr.com/photos/... The P6*6W- 35mm "focal length" - has an f/stop ( at the very center of the frame) of f/135, but at the corners, 52.85mm from the pinhole, f/203 - approaching a +2/3 stop change in exposure requirement. That is starting to be significant. So why wasn't this camera designed with a curved film plane? Since the P6*6W is a version of the original P6*6, I didn't want to have more than one significantly different part. The wider angle necessitated some subtle redesigning of shutter-related parts to minimize mechanical vignetting, but they are backward-compatible to the original design and have been updated as part of the official Thingiverse design repository. In a square image, the vignetting is symmetrical and allows the photographer to emphasize the scene's center or periphery, depending on exposure and artistic intention. Indeed, this is an effect many pinhole photographers relish, and I have had many requests for just such a remix of my original design. However, I am working on several wider format cameras, 6x9, or 6x12, and these cameras will definitely have a curved film "plane", with an equidistant curvature. Since film can only be bent around one axis, there will still be issues with light falling off at the top and bottom of a wide photograph, but again, shooting for a nominal 1/3 stop difference in exposure. As to blurred pinhole photos, all pinhole photographs are blurred. If you noticed, the term focal distance, while a convenient convention for pinhole camera design, is wholly inaccurate and has been used in this context with quote marks. A lens focuses an image by bending light to meet at a point, but pinholes do not focus anything; they project light in a straight line. This is known as a rectilinear projection and lens manufacturers go to great lengths and vast expense to approach reproducing a true perspective. The width of the projected beams of light is directly related to the width of the aperture or pinhole. A smaller hole means a clearer image on the film, but with a correspondingly longer exposure duration. A larger hole is faster, but blurrier. The various optimal pinhole diameter formulae (there are dozens) are intended to calculate the best trade-off between clarity and speed. Also, as a pinhole diameter decreases, unexpected diffraction effects can occur as photons interact at a quantum level. It may not be obvious, but there is a range of pinhole diameters that will work well for making pinhole photographs. for any given "focal distance". It is far more important that your pinhole not be too big or too small, than to be perfect. And **it is yet even more important that you know your pinhole's diameter with some precision**, so as to be able to accurately calculate your camera's f-number, and subsequent exposures. Keep in mind, any deviation from the pinhole sizes I have specified will necessitate recalculations for exposure durations (shutter speeds). Further, all the 3D printed pinhole cameras I have created are designed for easy pinhole replacement, allowing experimentation of design, technique and effect. Finally, I hope you embark on your pinhole photography adventures with the understanding that pinholes do not make the same photos that lenses make, nor do they make lesser photos. You won't take snapshots- indeed, pinhole photographs require deliberate composition, exposure calculation, and many seconds / minutes / hours of exposure. They make different photos, images that are startling, amazing, and very rewarding for the photographer. In fact, they can make images that no lensed camera could ever approximate. Thanks again for your interest and support -schlem ==== Resources: ==== http://photo.net/learn/pinhole/pinholehttp://photo.net/learn/pinhole... http://www.pinhole.cz/en/pinholedesigner/http://www.pinhole.cz/en/pinho... http://pinhole.stanford.edu/pinholemath.htmhttp://pinhole.stanford.edu/pi... http://www.mrpinhole.com/calcpinh.phphttp://www.mrpinhole.com/calcp... ==== Simple F/stop Math: ==== +1/3rd of a stop is 1.26 times F/#. -1/3rd of a stop is 0.8 times F/#. +1/2 a stop is 1.4 (1.42) times F/# -1/2 a stop is 0.7 (0.71) times F/#. +2/3rds of a stop is 1.5874 times (1.6 near enough) F/#. And -2/3rds of a stop is 0.63 times F/#.

hi, thnx a lot for taking the time writing all of this down. very interesting !!
I found calculations with a factor (c) of 1.9 (after Rayleigh they claim) down to 1.6. (pinhole d = c sqrt(550nmfocal length)
or considering the distance of the object d = sqrt(2.56*550nm/((1/distance to object) + (1/focal length))
hence when the object is far away (>10m) then you can neglect (1/distance to object) and the formula fimlifies to the first one.
in this case the factor c would be 1.6
I recently bought a book which supposed to be up to date, but i havnt got this yet (http://www.amazon.de/gp/product/3831112614)http://www.amazon.de/gp/produc...
and its in german...
When following your f-stop calculations above i repeated the same for a pinhole 0.25mm and came to the same conclusion. so probabyl it wont make much of a difference (except for exposure time) if you use a 0.3mm or a 0.25mm pinhole on the 50mm extension.
i think all those pinhole calculations are more like a thumb of rule and one needs to try out which suits best. And yes i know
that i cant expect the same results as with a lensed cam ;) if i need snapshots ill take my NEX-3 ;)
Long, long time ago... i used to do analog b/w photography including developing my own films and prints etc. but then i switched to digital photography and sold most of my stuff.
When i stumbled over your pinhole camera i got inspired going back to the roots and beyond ;)
Ill keep you posted how things are working out. Camera parts are printed just mission the pinhole and some films i ordered.
two things:
do you know this App ?: https://www.facebook.com/pinholeassisthttps://www.facebook.com/pinho...
seems to be quite good, but dont have anything to compare it to yet (still have to find my old light meter ;) )
probably ill use the iphone as some sort of viewfinder attached to the back of the P66, so i can always take a photo as
a reference for the used exposure parameters... still have to cook up a holder for it ...
secondly (probably most of the ppl know) for glueing ABS, Aceton works very well when applied in a thin layer on both parts.
Also for nicely pinished surfaces: just apply very little aceton with a soft brush. it gives a nice smooth and shiny surface, espacially for the parts you sandpapered and for the parts of the extension which are touching the film. just dont use to much
otherwise the ABS will melt away ;)

Thanks for the reply! I look forward to seeing your photos!
In (pinhole) photography, as in many endeavors, some things are "need to know", others are "nice to know", and then there is the "nuts to know". For myself, I just picked the most convenient Pinhole formula, which is part of the PinholeDesigner windows app. There are others, Mr Pinhole uses a slightly different formula, but they don't generate significantly different results. Same with reciprocity failure. There are rules of thumb and there are multi-variable exponential equations that give you about the same exposure +/- an f-stop. Luckily the latitude of most modern films allow adjustment of exposures that don't quite hit the mark. With careful metering and preparation, I am fairly happy with the results I get.
I haven't used Pinhole Assistant, not being an Apple user, but I have friends that swear by it. I am told it has good RF support for a wide variety of films.
Look for V/Fs soon.

Hi, thanks for putting this up. I'm looking into making one, and was wondering if you knew the volume of material used (I'm trying to get a pricing estimate; they charge by cm^3 of material). Thank you; any thoughts you have are greatly appreciated.

Thanks for the great question. But it's a trick question. In FDM (consumer-grade, extruder-type) 3D printing, volume of material used is a function of how many perimeters define inside and outside surfaces, and how much "infill" is specified for the print. I typically print my cameras (and most other parts) at 50% infill for strength.
Slicing for 2 perimeters and 50% infill, to 3D print the main parts of the camera takes about 22.3 meters of 3mm filament. Adding the face plate, pinhole cap, and film and body clips probably pushes that over 26 meters of filament. Using some geometry ( volume = p i r^2 height - I had to look it up), 26m of 3mm filament is 736 cubic cm. That's a quick estimate, but it could be more.

Hi. I am currently working on creating one of these cameras from scratch for my 3D modeling and printing class. I was wondering if you have any more of the measurements?

Other than a frame of 56x58mm, a focal distance of 50, and height and width of 120 film spools, I'm not sure what dimensions you would need to make a pinhole camera from scratch. If I were copying someone else's work, I'd open all the STL files in a CAD program and take the measurements there. And, of course, I'd attribute the original designer.

Where could I buy a 'Pinhole 0.30mm'? Or am I not understanding the instructions?

There are some nice folks out there, in the wilds of eCommerce, who sell very nice store-bought, often laser-drilled, pinholes. I bought one of their fancy pinholes once; was very expensive and very precise. I misplaced it before it found its way into a camera. Unless you demand a high degree of precision (and you might), I would simply make my own. It's actually almost as simple as it sounds.

There are several techniques used to make a pinhole of "known" diameter. This is my favorite:
A pin vise or small vice grips is very handy to have for this. If you can find on, the pin vise is much cheaper.

I included a number of other helpful and instructive links on the Thingiverse page for the PINHE4D.Instructions:

I will add them to the P6*6 also!

PINHE4D - a 35 mm Pinhole Camera
by schlem

Thanks for the info!

Wow, very cool design and a charming effect on the pictures. Would be nice to have a torsion spring loaded trigger for a shutter like this http://www.thingiverse.com/thing:8402http://www.thingiverse.com/thi.... If i had time...^^

Iris Box v3
by emmett

Yeah, multi-bladed iris-type shutters are very cool mechanisms, but shutters that dilate don't have much value if your camera's aperture is fixed and tiny (i.e. 0.30 mm). Also, no spring is necessary if you are holding the shutter open for an exposure measured in seconds (or minutes). Emmett's Iris box isn't designed to be a light-tight closure, and the gaps in between the blades might easily exceed the diameter of the pinhole. In lensed cameras, shutters are often very precise mechanisms of oiled metal - hard to duplicate with FDM, and probably not necessary for a medium that uses masking tape "shutters" to equal effect. ...I've thought much about shutters.

Brilliant stuff!! Ok, I totally have to make this.. there goes my weekend! :)

Fantastic camera, printed really beautifully in PLA and feels very solid - can´t wait to test it! Have you considered adding a simple viewfinder?

I have thought about that. I printed a clip-on plate with a couple of lines embossed with a 62 degree angle, but it's not very useful. I will knock something out in the next day or two - open to any and all suggestions. Do you like the idea of a removable V/F? or something glued to the cap?

cool project, im just in the process printig one ;) i will post my make when its ready
what about a clip on viewfinder?! any news about it ?
if i want to make my own, how would you suggest to go about it ?!

I was thinking that two holes thru the cap and two holes into the meatier bit of the frame would allow me to throw in two of the same hardware used in the shutter. This would secure the cap and give you mounting options for a viewfinder attachment or maybe a flash pan ;-)

Maybe a v/f glued to the cap might be more practical to use, however might it also increase the risk of the cap accidentally coming off for example when transporting the camera in a bag or inside a pocket. I was thinking of ways to secure the cap - one possiblity could be to put a tiny bit of velcro to both the middle section the inner extension housing and the inner side of the cap. I tried it but there was not enough space. The center section of the extension would have to be lowered a tiny bit to make room for the tape, otherwise the cap won´t close properly.

Do you think this would print ok in dark-colored PLA?

I was looking at Black PLA samples at the Makerbot store today. That would be absolutely suitable for camera use. It appears to be as opaque as ABS.

Great! Thanks for the tip.

Only if it is absolutely opaque. My experience with PLA (and non-black ABS) is that it is a little bit translucent. Of course, a couple coats of a flat black spray paint on interior surfaces would work too for any material/color. - that's a standard camera maker's trick.

WOW !!! You made my day !

Amazing, stylish (and knurled!) 120 film 3D printed camera!!!
Thanks a lot for designing this!

Glad you like! Thanks for the awesome knurled surface library!