## Contents

## Grade & Subject

### Subjects

Math Technology### Grades

Kindergarten 1st Grade 2nd Grade 3rd Grade 4th Grade 5th Grade## Tags

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Print Thing Tag# Summary

Upper elementary grades will create or modify counters for the attached 10-frame. The lower grades will use the attached 10-frame to practice learning the commutative property in math, i.e. 3 + 2 = 5, 2 + 3 = 5.

Included is the .stl files for the Commutative 10-frame with blocks for the children to be able to trace the '+" and "=" sign, and place the numbers appropriately under the counted 10-frame. The lower grades game is cooperative with two students facing each other on either side of the 10-frames. They each take their own counters and place them in the frame. Dice may be used so long as a roll of 6/6 or 5/6 is re-rolled. The student puts the number of counters in their frame, and writes the number sentence from their point of view. The other student does the same. This gives the opposite view, effectively flipping the addends.

Upper grades are "toymakers" in a STEM unit designed to last two 45-minute classes. The will work in teams of 2 to design a counter unique to them, copy and paste it 10 times, and work with additional constraints.

I have included a set of counters with two marks on the top, if anyone wants to just use this for lower grades. I have included a set of 4 template counters, to allow for differentiation. I have also included a slightly larger 10-frame which was my original 10-frame, but had to size it down to fit on the MakerBot Replicator Mini.

# Print Settings

**Printer Brand: **

MakerBot

**Printer: **

**Rafts: **

Yes

**Supports: **

No

**Notes: **

I am planning this unit for next school year. I have not had a chance to print these files yet. Please share and let me know how these files are helpful, or how the idea for the grade level STEM unit is helpful to your teaching and student learning.

July 4, 2018 Update & Note: I built this frame on the MakerBot Replicator Mini. It is functional, but I had a hard time removing the raft from the build. It was also very small. My build plate is not capable of any bigger. We used beads, instead of printing the pieces yet, for these pictures. The little child hands are 4 years old, and he could not write inside the boxes at this print size. We just wrote below. Also at this size, the pen/pencil would not fit into the + and = boxes easily. A mechanical pencil would have worked.

# Standards

# Overview and Background

**Overview**

I have not yet printed these designs, but I plan to use this lesson plan in a Kinder – 5th grade computer lab specials classes. All 750 students pass through the computer lab each week, for one 45-minute class. I designed this as a STEM unit, where the kids use the Engineering Design Iterative Process for 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th grades. Kinder – 1st and possibly 2nd grades will use the manipulatives created by the upper grades in their math studies, but also in the computer lab so they can see what is possible with a 3D printer.

I might have the advanced 4th and regular 5th grades creating 10-frames along with pieces in the toy-maker groups of 3 kids. As it is written, I envision 2nd – 4th graders creating or modifying the 4 counters file, copy& pasting them until each child gets 10 pieces.

Computer Specials at the elementary level in my district is graded as a pass/fail class because the focus is on exposure and participation. I have created a rubric for the pieces, and a pre/post assessment for the sake of completeness.

See the attached PDF for for a "pretty" version of the STEM Requirements. Also find pre-and post tests, and a rubric ready to print. The attached PDF also has the complete lesson plan for easy printing.

**NGSS and/or Common Core Standards Math / ISTE Standards**

Kindergarten: CCSS.Math.Content.K.OA.A.3. Understand addition as putting together and adding to, and understand subtraction as taking apart and taking from.

Decompose numbers less than or equal to 10 into pairs in more than one way, e.g., by using objects or drawings, and record each decomposition by a drawing or equation (e.g., 5 = 2 + 3 and 5 = 4 + 1).

Kindergarten: CCSS.Math.Content.K.OA.A.4. For any number from 1 to 9, find the number that makes 10 when added to the given number, e.g., by using objects or drawings, and record the answer with a drawing or equation.

First Grade: CCSS.Math.Content.1.OA.B.3. “Understand and apply properties of operations and the relationship between addition and subtraction. Apply properties of operations as strategies to add and subtract.2 Examples: If 8 + 3 = 11 is known, then 3 + 8 = 11 is also known. (Commutative property of addition.)” http://www.corestandards.org/Math/Content/1/MD/

(ISTE Standards). https://www.iste.org/standards/for-students

Grades 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th grade students

Innovative Designer 4a. Students know and use a deliberate design process for generating ideas, testing theories, creating innovative artifacts or solving authentic problems.

Innovative Designer 4b. Students select and use digital tools to plan and manage a design process that considers design constraints and calculated risks.

Innovative Designer 4c. Students develop, test and refine prototypes as part of a cyclical design process.

Innovative Designer 4d. Students exhibit a tolerance for ambiguity, perseverance and the capacity to work with open-ended problems.

Creative Communicator 6b. Students create original works or responsibly repurpose or remix digital resources into new creations.

**Instructional Objectives**

• Kindergarten: Use the printed manipulatives to add up to 10, using the single 10-frame, and the included counters, to decompose numbers up to 10.

• Kindergarten: Use the printed manipulatives to add up to 10, using the single 10-frame, and the included counters, to build * + * = 10.

• First Grade: Cooperative pairs of students work with the Commutative Property” to represent and then write the number equation for a given set of addends from their point of view, using the 3D printed “Commutative Double 10-frame.”

o This Commutative 10-Frame is designed to teach young students the commutative property of math, i.e., 2+3=5 is same as 3+2=5. Two kids sit opposite each other with a paper and pencil (or whiteboards and markers) and put counters in the squares.

o They count each 10-frame and write the number in the boxes below, trace + and =, then write the total to their right.

o Both kids' totals should be the same, and they should have flipped addends.

• Grades 2nd – 5th: Students will be toy makers, using the STEM “Engineering Design Process” in a 3D online program, to create an original design for a counter, or modify a given template for 10-frame counters. Some student toy-makers may also design their own 10-frames or modify given templates. Students will have to deal with several constraints to have their prototype printed on the 3D printer.

# Lesson Plan and Activity

**Design a Counter for a 10-Frame (2nd - 5th grades)**

STEM Requirements & Constraints:

- 10 counters of the same design per kid (20 per group)
- Counters must fit in the 10-frames. The bottom of the counters must be 7mm x 7mm or smaller (but not too small to stand) to fit inside of the 10-frame.
- Flat bottom
- No floaters – things that do not touch the Tinkercad Workplane
- No overhangs (Things that look like a V). The bottom should be the widest point of the counter
- You have 2 class periods to complete your first iteration.

See the attached PDF for a "pretty" version of the STEM Requirements. Also find pre-and post tests, and a rubric ready to print.

**Kindergarten Lesson Plan**

Use the 3D printed counters to add up to 10 on the single 10-frame. Kids or teachers can set up the board to start with any number 1 to 9, and the student uses the second set of counters to count up to 10. Add up to 10, using the single 10-frame, and the included counters, to build * + * = 10.

Use the single 10-frame, and the included counters, to decompose numbers up to 10.

**First Grade Lesson Plan**

First Grade is original the target grade level for the math portion of this lesson plan.

Using the 3D printed “Commutative Double 10-frame, cooperative pairs of students work with the "Commutative Property 10-Frame” and counters provided, or created by the upper grades, to represent and then write the number equation for a given set of addends from their point of view.

o This Commutative 10-Frame is designed to teach young students the commutative property of math, i.e., 2+3=5 is same as 3+2=5. Two kids sit opposite each other with a paper and pencil (or whiteboards and markers) and put counters in the squares.

o The numbers can be rolled on a dice, provided the 5/6 and 6/6 rolls are ignored and re-rolled.

o The kids count each 10-frame and write the number in the boxes below, trace + and =, then write the total to their right.

o Both kids' totals should be the same, and they should have flipped addends, because they are facing each other looking at the two 10-frames at the same time, from the opposite point of view (upside down to each other).

# Materials Needed

**Materials List**

- The 10-frame, or the Commutative 10-frames
- Counters (pre-printed, or the ones student toy-makers create)
- CM/MM rulers available
- The STEM Design Process that your school uses.
- STEM Notebooks – a class notebook would be sufficient up until the ideas for pieces, which should be unique to each toymaker pair.

# Skills Learned

- addition
- cooperation
- STEM
- counting
- measuring
- 3D design
- Engineering Design
- commutative
- addend
- sum
- iterative process
- ISTE
- decompose numbers

# Duration of Lesson

90 minutes

# Preparation

**For immediate Math Practice for grades K and 1st:**

• Print the ready-made counters included in the files, or use counters you already have.

• Print one 10-frame for Kindergarten.

• For 1st grade, print one or both of the 10-frame files attached.

• When the upper grades have completed some sets of counters, if time permits, let them play with the lower grades, using their counters.

**For 2nd – 5th grade students doing the STEM portion: **

• STEM Task: For the next two classes, students will be toymakers in teams of 2. you are tasked with creating counters that fit the 10-frame. You will use a 3D program such as TinkerCad, or similar to complete this task. We will complete the ASK together as a class. Your Team will complete the IMAGINE, PLAN, and CREATE together making 2 sets of 10 counters. Student toymaker teams who follow the constraints and requirements for their counters may get them printed on the 3D printer for use by the lower grades.

o STEM Requirements & Constraints:

• 10 counters of the same design per kid (20 per group)

• Counters must fit in the 10-frames*
• *If the kids are capable of measuring the inside of the existing 10-frame, this should be part of their task. They will need rulers.

• *The bottom of the counters must be 7mm x 7mm or smaller (but not too small to stand) to fit inside of the 10-frame.

• Flat bottom

• No floaters – things that do not touch the workplane

• No overhangs (Things that look like a V). The bottom should be the widest point of the counter

• You have 2 class periods to complete your first iteration and submit for a prototype 3D print.

# Rubric and Assessment

**See attached files for both Rubric and Pre/Post Test**

# Differentiated Learning Activities

**Gifted, ESOL, Special Education Populations**

- Special Education the teacher can provide worksheets or laminated problem cards pre-written, for the child/children to build with the 10-frame. Small counting bears should fit the attached 10-frame, if the 3D printer causes tactile issues. The teacher can also pre-set the 10-frame with a single color of counters, and have the student use a different color to find the “friend of 10.” Providing a number line, with names of numbers may be helpful. Making the activity a spoken word activity with a partner might be an appropriate accommodation, as would having 2-3 students working cooperatively to build as many pairs as they can, on chart paper, or the board.
- Gifted students can generate their own fact families by building each family with two sets of counters. For example, 3 + 2 = 5, 2 + 3 = 5, 5 – 2 = 3, and 5 – 3 = 2. Notice the subtraction pair has the larger addend (5) first in both pairs, while the addition pair has the same sum (5). Gifted students can also use a 3rd set of counters to create multi-addend problems up to 10, and apply the commutative property, for example 1 + 2 + 3 = 6, 2 + 1 + 3 = 6, 3 + 2 + 1 = 6, and 3 + 1 + 2 = 6.
- For the STEM Process, younger students can be a design team that does the drawing on paper, or on a 2D program on the computer, and send their designs to the upper grades to create in the 3D programs.
- For the STEM process, advanced 4th and all 5th grade students should be challenged with creating a 10-frame given the specifications that the squares need to hold a counter at least 7mm x 7mm.

**Lesson Summary / Student Reflection**

- Post Test
- Students will have completed their STEM Notebook as a class, and should have their 3D piece designs saved in their class drive.
- After playing, or watching others play with their pieces, make any adjustments to the toy maker team’s design.
- For upper grades, look at the Answer Garden Answers – ‘What did you learn in this unit?
- For lower grades, look at their written math sentences.